ISSN 2398-2969      

Tracheoscopy

Clapis

Introduction

  • Tracheoscopy is a procedure used to examine the trachea of a rabbit.
  • The endoscope can also be used to perform endotracheal intubation Endotracheal intubation.

Uses

  • Evaluation of the trachea and tracheal mucosa .
  • Detection of infection and collection of washings or biopsies for cytology, bacteriology and/or histopathology.
  • Removal of foreign bodies.
  • To perform endoscopic-guided endotracheal intubation.

Advantages

  • Can be curative if foreign objects are detected and removed.
  • Exudates, masses and foreign bodies can be visualized and samples can be readily obtained.
  • For intubating, endoscopy-guided intubation is faster and safer than 'blind' intubation.
  • Endotracheal tubes of the widest caliber possible can be used as the glottis is visualized.
  • The oral cavity is examined and there is no risk of introducing food into the trachea.

Disadvantages

  • A deep plane of anesthesia is required for tracheoscopy and tracheobronchoscopy investigations.
  • Small telescopes can only be used in larger rabbits and usually will only reach the tracheal bifurcation . Small flexible bronchoscopes are required for smaller rabbis and for bronchoscopy.
  • The mucosa of the trachea is sensitive, the head and neck must be kept extended and aligned to avoid any trauma.
  • Tracheobronchoscopy investigations are brief due to compromising gas exchange. Only use a small endoscope and if possible, introduce oxygen through the instrument channel of the endoscope.
  • Equipment relatively expensive.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Dependent on underlying cause.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Divers S J (2010) Endoscopy equipment and instrumentation for use in exotic animal veterinary medicine. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 13 (2), 171-185 PubMed.
  • Divers S J (2010) Exotic mammal diagnostic endoscopy and endosurgery. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 13 (2), 255-272 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Divers S J & Proenca L (2014) Rabbit diagnostic endoscopy. In:Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference. Orlando, Florida. pp 1-5.
  • Melillo A (2013) Endoscopy. In:BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 115-122.
  • Lennox A M (2007) Rigid Endoscopy in Small Mammals. In:Proc North America Veterinary Conference. pp 1654-1657.

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