ISSN 2398-2969      

Acupuncture: needle insertion

Clapis
Contributor(s):

Tim Couzens

Sarah Binns


Introduction

  • The insertion of needles at specified points on defined meridian lines along the body may:
    • Stimulate nerves    →   inhibit the transmission of pain impulses along them.
    • Stimulate nerves    →     release natural endorphins.
    • Cause an interaction between nerves    →     release factors from the pituitary gland    →     release natural endorphins.
    • Affect electrical activity in the body    →     ?analgesia.
  • The needling sensation (de-Qi) felt by the patient is initially soreness, heaviness or numbness at the point of insertion. This then travels along the meridian   Acupuncture: meridian systems  . The therapeutic results of acupuncture are closely related to achieving de-Qi. Veterinary patients may indicate de-Qi by attempting to bite, flinching or showing muscle twitching.

Uses

Advantages

  • Non-invasive.

Disadvantages

Contraindications

  • Do not place needles in areas where there is an active infection.
  • Do not place needles in known cancerous tissue.
  • Avoid major blood vessels.
  • Avoid use of certain points in pregnancy.
  • Avoid placing needles through contaminated/dirty hair or skin.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Habacher G, Pittler M H & Ernst E (2006) Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: systematic review. J Vet Intern Med 20 (3), 480-488 PubMed.
  • Xie H & Ortiz-Umpierre C (2006) What acupuncture can and cannot treat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 42 (4), 244-248 PubMed.
  • Chiu J H, Cheng H C, Tai C H et al (2001) Electroacupuncture-induced neural activation detected by use of manganese-enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 62 (2), 178-182 PubMed
  • Scott S (2001) Developments in veterinary acupuncture. Acupunct Med 19 (1), 27-31 PubMed.
  • Gaynor J S (2000) Acupuncture for management of pain. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30 (4), 875-884 PubMed.
  • Mittleman E & Gaynor J S (2000) A brief overview of the analgesic and immunologic effects of acupuncture in domestic animals. JAVMA 217 (8), 1201-1205 PubMed
  • Ho M W, Knight D P (1998) The acupuncture system and the liquid crystalline collagen fibers of the connective tissues. Am J Chin Med 26 (3-4), 251-263 PubMed.  
  • Bossut D F (1996) Veterinary clinical applications of acupuncture. J Altern Complement Med (1), 65-69 PubMed.
  • Takagi J, Sawada T & Yonehara N (1996) A possible involvement of monoaminergic and opioidergic systems in the analgesia induced by electro-acupuncture in rabbits. Jpn J Pharmacol 70 (1), 73-80 PubMed.
  • Yu C, Zhang K, Lu G et al (1994) Characteristics of acupuncture meridians and acupoints in animals. Rev Sci Tech 13 (3), 927-933 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A (1993) The role of acupuncture in analgesia. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 118 (Suppl 1), 11S-12S PubMed.
  • Altman S (1992) Techniques and instrumentation. Probl Vet Med (1), 66-87 PubMed.
  • Altman S (1992) The incorporation of acupuncture into a small animal practice. Probl Vet Med (1), 223-233 PubMed.
  • Hwang Y C (1992) Anatomy and classification of acupoints. Probl Vet Med (1), 12-15 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A (1992) Trigger point therapy. Probl Vet Med (1), 117-124 PubMed.
  • Limehouse J B (1992) Oriental concepts of acupuncture. Probl Vet Med (1), 53-65 PubMed.
  • Rogers P A, Schoen A M & Limehouse J (1992) Acupuncture for immune-mediated disorders. Literature review and clinical applications. Probl Vet Med (1), 162-193 PubMed.
  • Schoen A M (1992) Acupuncture for musculoskeletal disorders. Probl Vet Med (1), 88-97 PubMed.
  • Schwartz C (1992) Chronic respiratory conditions and acupuncture therapy. Probl Vet Med (1) 136-143 PubMed.
  • Schoen A M, Janssens L & Rogers P A (1986) Veterinary acupuncture. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) (3), 224-229 PubMed.
  • Williams B M (1986) Acupuncture treatment of paralysis. Vet Rec 119 (13), 340 PubMed.
  • Altman S (1981) Clinical use of veterinary acupuncture. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 76 (9), 1307-1312 PubMed.
  • Wright M & McGrath C J (1981) Physiologic and analgesic effects of acupuncture in the dog. JAVMA 178 (5), 502-507 PubMed.
  • Janssens L, Altman S & Rogers P A (1979) Respiratory and cardiac arrest under general anaesthesia: treatment by acupuncture of the nasal philtrum. Vet Rec 105 (12), 273-276 PubMed.
  • Rogers P A (1978) Veterinary acupuncture. Vet Rec 102 (17), 387 PubMed.
  • Altman S (1977) Acupuncture: taking a closer look. Mod Vet Pract 58 (12), 1003-1006 PubMed.
  • Freeman A (1974) Veterinary acupuncture. JAVMA 164 (5), 446-448 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Xie H & Preast V (2007) Xies Veterinary Acupuncture. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Lindley S & Cummings M (2006) Essentials of Western Veterinary Acupuncture. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Schoen A (2000) Veterinary Acupuncture. Ancient Art to Modern Medicine. 2nd edn. Mosby. 
  • Ernst E & White A (1999) Eds Acupuncture A Scientific Appraisal. Butterworth.
  • Filshie J & White A (1998) Eds Medical Acupuncture A Western Scientific Approach. Churchill Livingstone.
  • Schoen & Wynn (1997) Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine. Mosby.
  • Maciocia G (1989) The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone.
  • Kaputchuk T J (1983) Chinese Medicine - The Web That Has No Weaver. Rider.

Organisation(s)

  • The Secretary,The Association of British Veterinary Acupuncturists (ABVA), East Park Cottage, Handcross, Haywards Heath, West Sussex, RH17 6BD, UK.

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