ISSN 2398-2969      

Tramadol

Clapis

Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanism of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C16H25NO2

Molecular weight

  • 299.8g/mol

Physical properties

  • Tramadol is available in many different formulations including tablets, capsules, oral liquid and an injectable preparation.

Storage requirements

  • Tramadol is controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 and storage requirements apply. Be aware of the potential for abuse of the drug by humans.

Uses

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Indications

  • Mild to moderate acute pain. Adjunctive analgesic agent in management of chronic pain Pain: assessment and relief from osteoarthritis Arthritis or neoplasia.
  • The efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol are not well described in rabbits, therefore tramadol should not be used as a first line analgesic drug Analgesia.
  • Due to the oral tablet/liquid formulation and fact that it can be dispensed to owners, it is useful for provision of medium to long-term analgesia in the home environment. It is an alternative analgesic drug for animals that are intolerant of NSAIDs Therapeutics: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or it can be given in combination with NSAIDs to animals that remain painful despite NSAID therapy.
  • Tramadol appears to be efficacious for the management of both acute and chronic pain, however the recommended dose range is largely empirical due to a lack of combined PK/PD studies.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Because of tramadol’s monoamine reuptake inhibition, it should not be given with tri-cyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors due to the risk of serotonin syndrome (increased heart rate, pupil dilation, twitching and hyperreflexia) and potential for seizures Seizures.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Egger C M, Souza M J, Greenacre C B et al (2009) Effect of intravenous administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 70 (8), 945-949 PubMed.
  • Souza M J, Greenacre C B & Cox S K (2008) Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Am J Vet Res 69 (8), 979-982 PubMed.
  • KuKanich B & Papich M G (2004) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 27 (4), 239-246 PubMed.
  • Mastrocinque S & Fantoni D T (2003) A comparison of preoperative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg 30 (4), 220-228 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Small Animal Formulary, Part B: Exotics. 9th edn. BSAVA, Quedgeley, Gloucester.
  • Chitty J (2013) Formulary In: Manual of rabbit surgery, dentistry and imaging. Eds. Harcourt-Brown F Chitty J. BSAVA. pp 429-431.
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