ISSN 2398-2969      

Moxidectin

Clapis

Introduction

Name

  • Moxidectin.

Class of drug

  • Macrocyclic lactone.
  • 16 member pentacyclic lactone of the milbemycin class.
  • Semi-synthetic milbemycin.
  • Derived from the actinomyceteStreptomycetes cyaneogriseus noncyanogenus.

Description

Chemical name

  • (6R,23E,25S)-5-O-demethyl-28-deoxy-[(1E)-1,3-dimethyl-1-butenyl]-6,28-epoxy-23-(methoxyimino) milbemycin B.
  • 23-(O-Methyloxime)-F28249-a.

Molecular formula

  • C37H53NO8.

Molecular weight

  • 639.84 g.

Physical properties

  • White to pale yellow crystalline powder.
  • Differ from avermectins in the abscence of a disaccharide chain at C13.
  • Melting point: 145-154°C / 293-309.2°F.
  • Solubility in water: 0.51 mg/l.
  • Readily soluble in organic solvents.

Storage requirements

  • 2-8°C / 35.6-46.4°F.

Uses

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Indications

Endoparasiticide

  • Activity against nematode and arthropod parasites.
  • In rabbits:
    • Evaluated as a treatment for psoroptic mange   Ear mites  .
  • In horses:
    • Efficacy against adult and larval stages of many helminth parasites of horses.
    • Active against:
      • Strongyloides westeri(adult).
      • Lungworm.
      • Small strongyles/cyathostomes (adult and intraluminal stages) - some activity against developing larvae.
      • Large strongyles (adult and migratory stages).
      • Bots.
      • Gasterophilas intestinalisandG. nasalis.
      • Habronema muscae(adult).
      • Trichostrongylus axei.
      • Oxyuris equi(adult and larvae).
      • Parascaris equorum.

No action against trematodes, protozoa or cestodes.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • No other antiparasitic marcocyclic lactone should be administered concurrently.

with diagnostic tests

  • Little information available in rabbits.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gokbulut C, Biligili A, Kart A et al (2010) Plasma dispositions of ivermectin, doramectin and moxidectin following subcutaneous administration in rabbits. Lab Anim 44 (2), 138-142 PubMed.
  • Lespine A, Chanoit G, Bousquet-Melou A et al (2006) Contribution of lymphatic transport to the systemic exposure of orally administered moxidectin in conscious lymph duct-cannulated dogs. Eur J Pharm Sci 27 (1), 37-43 PubMed.
  • Hansen O, Gall Y, Pfister K et al (2005) Efficacy of a formulation containing imidacloprid and moxidectin against naturally acquired ear mite infestations (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. Intern J Appl Res (4), 281-286 VetMedResource.
  • Bassissi F M, Lespine A & Alvinerie M (2004) Enhancement of oral moxidectin bioavailability in rabbits by lipid co-administration. Parasitol Res 94 (3), 188-192 PubMed.
  • Wagner R & Wendlberger U (2000) Field efficacy of moxidectin in dogs and rabbis naturally infested with Sarcoptes spp, Demodex spp andPsoroptes spp mites. Vet Parasitol 93 (2), 149-158 PubMed.
  • Bauer C, Cirak V Y, Hermosilla C et al (1998) Efficacy of a 2 percent moxidectin gel against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies. Vet Rec 143 (20), 558-561 PubMed.
  • Blagburn B L & Lindsay D S (1998) Advances in parasitology. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 20, 415-416.
  • Coles G C, Hillyer M H, Taylor F G et al (1998) Activity of moxidectin against bots and lungworm in equids. Vet Rec 143 (6), 169-170 PubMed.
  • Scholl P J (1998) Moxidectin 2% equine oral gel. Equine Pract 20 (3), 19-22 VetMedResource.
  • Lemarié S L (1996) Canine demodicosis. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 18 (4), 354-369 VetMedResource.
  • Miller W H Jr, Scott D W, Wellington J R et al (1993) Clinical efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the treatment of generalised demodicosis in adult dogs. JAVMA 203 (10), 1426-1429 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hollins J D, Marlow B P & Hatherell P J (2000) Ingestion of equine moxidectin by dogs. Vet Rec 147 (8), 227-228 PubMed.
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