ISSN 2398-2969      

Amoxicillin

Clapis

Synonym(s): Amoxycillin


Introduction

Name

  • Amoxycillin.

Class of drug

  • Penicillin antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 6[D(-)-a-amino-p-hydroxyphenylacetamido]penicillanic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C16H19N3O5S.
  • Similar to ampicillin, but with an extra hydroxyl group on the phenyl ring.

Molecular weight

  • 419.45 g.

Physical properties

  • Tablets (50 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg).
  • Powder for oral solutions (50% w/w equivalent to 500 mg/g and 100% w/w equivalent to 1000 mg/g).
  • Powder is usually white and odorless.
  • Acid-stable, beta-lactamase-susceptible.
  • Various injectable formulations typically containing a non-aqueous or oily suspension of amoxicillin trihydrate at a concentration of 150 mg/ml.
  • Sparingly soluble in water, lipid insoluble.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C.
  • In a dry environment.
  • Self-life and manufacturer's recommendations should be respected.

Uses

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Indications

  • Actrive against certain gram-positive and negative organisms.
  • Generally indicated for the treatment of skin diseases, soft tissue infections, dental infections, urinary tract infections and respiratory disease in small animals (dogs and cats).
  • Not active against those that produce penicillinases, egE. coli  Escherichia coli   andStaphylococcus aureus  Staphylococcus aureus  .
  • The more difficult gram-negative organisms, egPseudomonasspp   Pseudomonads  , are usually resistant.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Probenecid: will decrease the renal tubular secretion of penicillin   Penicillin  antibiotics and thus prolong their blood levels.
  • Aminoglycosides: do not mix in the same syringe as aminoglycosides.

Not recommended for use with bacteriostatic antibiotics.

with diagnostic tests

  • Little information available.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kelley Fann M & O'Rourke D (2001) Normal bacterial flora of the rabbit gastrointestinal tract: A clinical approach. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 10 (1), 45-47 ResearchGate.
  • Woodnut G, Berry V & Mizen L (1995) Effect of protein binding on penetration of beta-lactams into rabbit peripheral lymph. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 (12), 2678-2683 PubMed.
  • Hillyer E V (1994) Pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am: Small Anim Pract 24, 25-65 PubMed.
  • Lashev L (1986) [Comparative pharmacokinetic research in agricultural animals.] Vet Med Nauki 23 (10), 76-82 PubMed.
  • Pujadas R, Escriva E, Jane J et al (1986) Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 29 (5), 909-912 PubMed.
  • Uematsu M, Ito T, Morishima T et al (1983) [Study on distribution to oral tissues of long acting amoxicillin.] Jap J Antibiot 36 (2), 423-427 PubMed
  • Faiqenbaum S J, Boyle G L, Prywes A S et al (1976) Intraocular penetrating of amoxicillin. Am Ophthalmol 82 (4), 598-603 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2011) Ed Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
  • Carpenter J W (2005) Exotic animal formulary. 3rd edn. St Louis: Elsevier Publishing
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