ISSN 2398-2969      

Tyzzer's Disease

Clapis

Introduction

  • CauseClostridium piliforme.
  • Signs: diarrhea, dehydration, death.
  • Diagnosis: histological examination, post-mortem of affected organs, visualization of clostridia, ELISA available.
  • Treatment: aggressive fluid therapy, antibiosis (although this is generally unrewarding), provision of a high fiber diet.
  • Prognosis: poor in young rabbits, however older rabbits may survive. Usually poor response to antibiosis and treatment is often palliative once clinical signs are seen.

Presenting signs

  • The disease is endemic in many rabbit colonies.
  • Young weanling rabbits present with diarrhea, depression, death.
  • Clinical disease is seen especially at times of stress or under poor hygienic conditions.
  • In older rabbits a chronic form may present.

Acute presentation

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide.

Age predisposition

  • Often occurs in rabbits that have just been weaned (6-12 weeks).
  • Can occur in rabbits at any age.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lord B (2012) Gastrointestinal disease in rabbits 2. Intestinal diseases. In Pract 34 (3), 156-162 VetMedResource.
  • Pritt S, Henderson K S, Shek W R (2010) Evaluation of available diagnostic methods for Clostridium piliforme in laboratory methods (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim 44, 14-19 PubMed.
  • Goto K & Itoh T (1996) Detection of Clostridium piliforme by enzymatic assay of amplified cDNA segment in microtitration plates. Lab Anim Sci Oct 46 (5), 493-496 PubMed.
  • Franklin C L, Motzel S L, Besch-Williford C L et al (1994) Tyzzer's infection - host specificity of Clostridium piliforme isolates. Lab Anim Sci 44 (6), 568-572 PubMed.
  • Lee W K, Fujisawa T, Kawamura S et al (1991) Isolation and identification of clostridia from the intestine of laboratory animals. Lab Anim 25 (1), 9-15 PubMed.
  • Carman R J & Evans R H (1984) Experimental and spontaneous clostridial enteropathies of laboratory and free living lagomorphs. Lab Anim Sci Oct 34 (5), 443-452 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Delaney M A, Treuting P M & Rothenburger J L (2018) Lagomorpha. In: Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals. Eds: Terio KA, McAloose D & St.Leger, J. Academic Press, UK. pp 481-497.
  • Varga M (2014) Infectious Diseases of Domestic Rabbits. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK. pp 435-471.
  • Varga M (2014) Digestive Disorders. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK. pp 303-349.
  • Saunders R (2014) Therapeutics. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 284-300.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2014) Digestive System Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 168-190.
  • Meredith A & Crossley D A (2002) Rabbits. In: Manual of Exotic Pets. BSAVA, UK. pp 76-92.
  • Deeb B (2000) Digestive System and Disorders. In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. BSAVA, UK. pp 39-46.
  • Delong D & Manning P J (1994) Bacterial Diseases. In: The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomber C E. Academic Press, pp 131-170.

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