ISSN 2398-2969      

Therapeutics: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Clapis

Synonym(s): NSAIDs


Introduction

  • Used in human and veterinary medicine for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects.
  • NSAIDs principally inhibit the effects of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and/or 2), reducing synthesis of prostaglandin and related compounds.
  • There are 2 isoforms of COX: COX-1 and COX-2.
  • COX-1 is constitutively expressed, and is important in normal physiological functions, particularly enteric and renal effects and in the production of thromboxane:
    • Inhibition of COX-1 accounts for the systemic side-effects seen with NSAID use.
    • In comparison to COX-2 it has relatively low enzyme activity producing low levels of prostaglandins. It can contribute to inflammatory pain.
  • COX-2 is produced at inflammatory sites in response to cytokines, bacterial toxins and infection:
    • It is a high activity enzyme accounting for production of large amounts of prostaglandin and hence inflammatory pain.
  • Potency ratios for the inhibition of COX-1:COX-2 ratio varies between NSAIDs.
  • NSAIDs are a better alternative to steroids in the rabbit due to the immunosuppressive effects of the latter, although no products are currently licensed for use in this species.
  • Increase the dose interval in geriatric or neonatal rabbits might be a consideration.

Routes of administration

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Uses

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Examples of available agents

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Precautions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Naruse T, Nishida Y, Hosono K et al (2006) Meloxicam inhibits osteosarcoma growth, invasiveness and metastasis by COX-2 dependent and independent routes. Cardiogenesis 27 (3), 584-592 PubMed.
  • Turner P V, Chen H C & Taylor M W (2006) Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in rabbits after single and repeat oral dosing. Comp Med 56 (1), 63-67 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK.
  • Oglesbee B (2011) Anterior Uveitis. In: Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • Pollock C (2006) Therapeutics. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, UK.

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