ISSN 2398-2969      

Spirochetosis

Clapis

Synonym(s): Syphilis, Treponematosis, Treponemiasis, Vent disease


Introduction

  • Venereal spirochetosis was first described in American rabbits in 1922 by Hideyo Noguchi.
  • CauseTreponema cuniculi or paraluiscuniculi Treponema cuniculi.
  • Signs: skin lesions around perineum and face, beginning with redness and edema, progressing to vesicles, nodules, ulcers, scabs and proliferative lesions. Regional lymph node enlargement.
  • Diagnosis: characteristic clinical signs, microscopic visualization of the organism from skin scrapings on dark field microscopy or biopsies (silver stains), serological tests.
  • Treatment: penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines.
  • Prognosis: excellent.

Age predisposition

  • Most common in young animals.
  • Vertical transmission is possible during passage through the birth canal.
  • Occasional disease in adult pet rabbit kept on its own.

Pathogenesis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcome

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lumeij J T (2013) Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares. Vet Microbiol 164, 190-194 PubMed.
  • Richardson V (2012) Urogenital disease in rabbits. In Pract 34 (10), 554-563 VetMedResource.
  • Sant R & Rowland M (2009) Skin disease in rabbits. In Pract 31 (5), 233-238 VetMedResource.
  • Saito K, Tagawa M, Mimura M et al (2005) Clinical features and rapid plasma reagin antibody titers in spontaneous and experimental rabbit syphilis. J Vet Med Sci 67 (7), 739-741 PubMed.
  • Saito K & Hasegawa A (2004) Clinical features of skin lesions in rabbit syphilis: a retrospective study of 63 cases (1999-2003). J Vet Med Sci 66 (10), 1247-1249 PubMed.
  • Saito K & Hasegawa A (2004) Chloramphenicol treatment for rabbit syphilis. J Vet Med Sci 66 (10), 1301-1304 PubMed.
  • Jenkins (2001) Skin disorders of the rabbit. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 4 (2), 543-563 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2014) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 255-263.
  • Varga M (2014) Skin Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Elsevier, UK. pp 271-302.
  • Miller W H, Scott D W, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Dermatoses of Exotic Small Mammals. In: Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 7th edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 844-887.
  • Hess L & Tater K (2012) Dermatologic Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 232-244.
  • Meredith A (2006) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
  • Meredith A (2006) Skin diseases and treatment of Rabbits. In: Skin diseases of Exotic Pets. Ed: Paterson S. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 288-311.
  • Saunders & Davies (2005) Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, UK.
  • Harcourt-Brown (2002) Skin diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Elsevier Science Ltd. 

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code