ISSN 2398-2969      

Spine: spondylosis deformans

Clapis

Synonym(s): Spondylosis


Introduction

  • Cause: unknown; risk factors may include obesity, genetics, trauma.
  • Signs: can be incidental and have no associated signs; signs may be associated with a decreased mobility of the spine (difficulties ambulating, weak hind legs, decreased grooming, urine and faecal staining of the fur around the perineum, urine scald   Perineum: urine scald  .
  • Diagnosis: radiographs.
  • Treatment: supportive care.
  • Prognosis: condition is not curable, but animal can be made comfortable.

Presenting signs

  • Incidental.
  • Difficulties ambulating (difficulties walking/hopping):
    • Not walking well.
    • Not hopping normally.
    • Weak hindlimbs.
    • Hunched posture.
    • Stationary position.
  • Decreased grooming:
  • Inappropriate urination - perineal urine staining/scalding   Perineum: urine scald  .
  • Uneaten cecotrophs   Feces: cecotrophs  - fecal staining around the perineum.
  • Symptoms may fluctuate from day to day - symptoms may be affected by animals activity level and potentially weather patterns.

Acute presentation

  • Fecal staining of the perineum.
  • Urine scald   Perineum: urine scald  .
  • Decreased movement (walking & hopping).

Age predisposition

  • Common in older rabbits.

Sex predisposition

  • Females, although occurs in both sexes.

Breed predisposition

  • Medium to large breeds.

Cost considerations

  • Diagnostics often involve tests to rule out other underlying issues which may turn out to be costly.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Manipulation during sedation or anesthesia may worsen clinical signs if spinal exostoses are inadvertently traumatized at this time.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Keeble E (2006) Common neurological and musculoskeletal problems in rabbits. In Pract 28 (4), 212-218 VetMedResource.
  • Green P W, Fox R R & Sokoloff L (1984) Spontaneous degenerative spinal disease in the laboratory rabbit. J Ortho Res (2), 161-168 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Girling S J (2006) Diagnostic Imaging. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. Wiley, Johns & Sons, Incorporated, Gloucester, England. pp 58.
  • Keeble E (2006) Nervous and Musculoskeletal Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. Wiley, Johns & Sons, Incorporated, Gloucester, England. pp 112.
  • Deeb B J & Carpenter J W (2004) Neurologic and Musculoskeletal diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn.  Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. W B Saunders, St, Louis, USA. pp 208.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Ed Neurological and Locomotor diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, England. pp 319-323.

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