ISSN 2398-2969      

Pseudotuberculosis

Clapis

Synonym(s): Yersiniosis


Introduction

  • CauseYersinia pseudotuberculosis  Yersinia pseudotuberculosis  - a member of the Yersiniagenus, which contains two other species notable for their pathogenicity in humans, namely Yersinia pestisand Yersinia entercolitica:
    •  Y. pestisis transmitted by fleas or in aerosols and infects regional lymph nodes and pulmonary tissue, causing the highly lethal disease known as plague.
    •  Y. pseudotuberculosisand Y. enterocoliticaare enteropathogenic bacteria typically associated with acute infections of mesenteric lymph nodes.
    • Whilst these three species utilize different modes of transmission and cause different diseases, they all demonstrate a common tropism for lymphoid tissue and rely on a common set of core virulence determinants to successfully infect a mammalian host.
  • Signs: weight loss, lethargy, abdominal masses, hyperthermia, leukocytosis.
  • Diagnosis: laparotomy, biopsy, ante/post mortem examination.
  • Treatment: supportive care/feeding.
  • Prognosis: self-limiting - generally good.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • Sudden death may occur in 48 h in septicemic cases.

Geographic incidence

  •  Yersinia pseudotuberculosishas a worldwide distribution and is found ubiquitously in the environment. However, the disease is rarely reported in the Mediterranean region or the Middle East.
  • Most cases occur in the winter months. This may be due to the enhanced growth characteristics of the organism in cold temperatures.

Age predisposition

  • No reported age predisposition in rabbits.
  • More than 75% of human cases are in children aged 5-15 years.

Sex predisposition

  • No reported sex predisposition in rabbits.
  • In humans, men are affected three times more often than women.

Breed predisposition

  • No reported breed predisposition in rabbits.

Public health considerations

  • Pseudotuberculosis is an important zoonotic disease.
  • Zoonotic risk presented by wild rabbits much greater than that presented by domestic rabbits.
  • Direct zoonotic transmission of Yersinia pseudotuberculosisfrom domestic rabbits has been documented, however.

Cost considerations

  • Economic loss in farmed rabbits.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Significant zoonotic risk to owners, farm workers and veterinary staff.
  • Fecal contamination of the environment.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Okwori A E J, Agina S E, Odugbo M O et al (2007) Experimental Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteritis in laboratory animals. African J Biotech (20), 2411-2414 VetMedResource.
  • Pujol C & Bliska J B (2005) Turning Yersinia pathogenesis outside in: subversion of macrophage function by intracellular yersiniae. Clin Immunol 114 (3), 216-226 PubMed.
  • Voskressenskaya E, Leclercq A, Tseneva G et al (2005) Evaluation of ribotyping as a tool for molecular typing of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains of worldwide origin. J Clin Microbiol 43 (12), 6155-6160 PubMed.
  • Najdenski H, Vesselinova A, Golkocheva E et al (2003) Experimental infections with wild and mutant Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains in rabbits. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 50 (6), 280-288 PubMed.
  • Najdenski H, Vesselinova A, Golkocheva E et al (2003) Characterization of infections with wild and mutant Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains in rabbit oral model. Adv Exp Med Biol 529, 117-120 PubMed.
  • Paerregaard A, Espersen F & Skurnik M (1991) Role of the Yersinia outer membrane protein YadA in adhesion to rabbit intestinal tissue and rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesiclesAPMIS 99 (3), 226-232 PubMed.
  • Hubbert W T (1972) Yersiniosis in Mammals and Birds in the United States: Case Reports and Review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 (4), 458-463 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Harcourt-Brown F (2014) Digestive System Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine.Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 168-190.
  • Najdenski H & Speck S (2012) Yersinia Infections. In: Infectious Disease of Wild mammals and Birds in Europe.Eds: Gavier-Widen D, Duff J P & Meredith A. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester. pp 293-302.
  • Fox J G, Newcomer C E & Rozmiarek H (1984) Selected Zoonoses and other Health Hazards. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine. Eds: Fox J G, Cohen B J & Loew F M. New York: Academic. pp 613-648.

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