ISSN 2398-2969      

Neotrombicula autumnalis infestation

Clapis

Synonym(s): Harvest mite infestation, Trombicula infestation, Berry bug infestation, Chiggers


Introduction

  • Cause: larvae of Neotrombicula autumnalis Neotrombicula autumnalis.
  • Signs: facial and pedal pruritus in summer and autumn; orange mites seen with naked eye.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs.
  • Treatment: difficult. Disease often self-limiting.
  • Prognosis: good.

Presenting signs

  • Mite larvae are pale yellow (if fed) or deep red (if unfed) and are visible with the naked eye.
  • Facial pruritus; varies with level of hypersensitivity.
  • Ulceration and excoriation of ears, head and neck.
  • Other areas affected, eg ventral abdomen, perianal skin and feet.

Geographic incidence

  • Areas with damp but well drained, eg chalky or sandy, soil.
  • Found throughout Western Europe to Eastern Asia.
  • The mite has not been found in the Nearctic region, and only isolated populations have been observed in the Palaearctic region.
  • Infests outdoor rabbits with access to habitats where harvest mites are found.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schöler A, Maier W & Kampen H (2006) Multiple environmental factor analysis in habitats of the Harvest mite Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae) suggests extraordinarily high euryoecious biology. Exp Appl Acarology 39 (1), 41-62 PubMed.
  • Guarneri F, Pugliese A, Guidice E et al (2005) Trombiculiasis: clinical contribution. Eur J Derm 15 (6), 495-496 PubMed.
  • Kampen H, Schöler A, Metzen M et al (2004) Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari, Trombiculidae) as a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato? Exp Appl Acarology 33 (1-2), 93-102 PubMed.
  • Fernández-Soto P, Pérez-Sánchez R & Encinas-Grandes A (2001) Molecular detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophilagenogroup organisms in larvae of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae) captured in Spain. J Parasitol 87 (6), 1482-1483 PubMed.
  • Vater G (1982) The geographical distribution of the harvest mite Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae). Zoologische Jahrbucher, Abteilung fur Systematik, Okologie und Geographie der Tiere 109 (3), 329-356 VetMedResource.
  • Sasa M (1961) Biology of chiggers. Ann Rev Ent 6, 221-244 AnnualReviews.
  • Keay G (1937) The ecology of the Harvest mite (Trombicula autumnalis) in the British Isles. J Anim Ecol (1), 22-35 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Varga m (2014) Skin Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 271-302.
  • Shatrov A B & Kudryashova N I (2007) Taxonomy, Lifecycles and the Origin of Parasitism in Trombiculid Mites. In: Micromammals & Macroparasites From Evolutionary Ecology to Management. Eds: Morand S, Krasnov B R & Poulin R. Springer, Japan. pp 119-140.
  • Wilkinson D C (2004) Population Biology, Ectoparasites and Myxomatosis: A Longitudinal Study of a Free-living Population of European Wild Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) in East Anglia. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Skin diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, UK. pp 224-248.
  • Hofing G L & Kraus A L (1994) Arthropod and Helminth Parasites. In: The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press, USA. pp 231-258.

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