ISSN 2398-2969      

Hypertension

Clapis

Introduction

  • Consistent increase in arterial blood pressure above the normal value for the species.
  • Cause: secondary, eg chronic renal failure.
  • Signs: PU/PD, behavioral changes.
  • Diagnosis: early screening and identification to prevent/delay progression of organ damage (kidney, heart, central nervous system, eyes).
  • Treatment: address underlying causes.
  • Prognosis: good if hypertension controlled and underlying disease managed.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • May be diagnosed when severe organ damage occurred - cardiac failure and renal decompensation.

Age predisposition

  • Reported in the geriatric rabbit as a consequence of chronic renal disease or cardiac insufficiency.

Special risks

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chitty J (2015) Cardiovascular disease in rabbits. Comp Anim 20 (2), 74-78 VetMedResource.
  • Lim K, Burke S L, Armitage J A et al (2012) Comparison of blood pressure and sympathetic activity of rabbits in their home cage and laboratory environment. Exper Physiol 97 (12), 1263-1271 PubMed.
  • Reusch B (2005) Investigation and management of cardiovascular disease in rabbits. In Pract 27 (8), 418-425 VetMedResource.
  • Denton K M, Flower R L, Stevenson K M et al (2003) Adult rabbit offspring of mothers with secondary hypertension have increased blood pressure. Hypertension 41 (3 Pt 2), 634-639 PubMed.
  • van Den Buuse M & Malpas S C (1997) 24 hour recordings of blood pressure, heart rate and behavioural activity in rabbits by radiotelemetry: effects of feeding and hypertension. Physiol Behav 62 (1), 83-89 PubMed.
  • Bursztyn P G & King M H (1986) Fat induced hypertension in rabbits: the effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic acid. J Hypertension (6), 699-702 PubMed.
  • Carroll J F, Dwyer T M & Grady A W (1986) Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and neurohormonal activity in a new animal model of obesity. Am J Physiol 271 (1 Pt 2), H373-378 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 191-204.
  • Orcutt C (2014) Cardiovascular Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 205-213.
  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Fisher P G (2013) Renal Disorders. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotics Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri.
  • Raftery A (2013) Cardiovascular Disease. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotics Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri.
  • Pollock C (2006) Therapeutics. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester.

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