ISSN 2398-2969      

Bone: osteosarcoma

Clapis

Synonym(s): Osteogenic sarcoma


Introduction

  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: dependent on affected area.
  • Diagnosis: cytology (fine needle aspirate suitable for extraskeletal masses), histopathology (biopsy), radiography, CT, MRI.
  • Treatment: surgical removal where possible; amputation of affected limb.
  • Prognosis: poor, it remains unknown whether the prognosis varies with tumor location.

Print off the Owner factsheetOsteosarcoma - bone cancer  Osteosarcoma - bone cancer  to give to your clients.

Presenting signs

  • Dependent on affected area:
    • Fever.
    • Pain.
    • Lameness.
    • Pathological fracture.
    • Swelling.
    • Bleeding.
    • Dysorexia.
    • Gait difficulties.
    • Subcutaneous nodules & other non-painful mass.
  • Predilection sites are unknown.
  • Extraskeletal masses commonly occur on skull or facial bones.
  • Other reported sites of osteosarcoma in rabbits include:
    • Ribs.
    • Sacrococcygeal joint.
    • Mandible.
    • Upper lip.
    • Proximal and distal tibia.
    • Femur.
    • Glenohumeral joint.
    • Intertarsal joint.

Acute presentation

  • Although history from owner can indicate acute presentation, there has often been a more insidious progress of the disease.
  • Generally present as limb swelling and/or lameness.

Geographic presentation

  • Worldwide.

Age predisposition

  • More commonly reported in older animals.
  • Can occur at any age.

Sex predisposition

  • Reported in both males and females.

Breed predisposition

  • All breeds are susceptible.

Public health considerations

  • No known public health concerns.

Cost considerations

  • Fine needle aspirate and cytology is a cheap and good first step for extraskeletal masses. For skeletal tumors, radiography and bone biopsy are more effective.
  • Radiography is most cost effective initial test for skeletal masses as appearance of lesion often typical.
  • Costs can increase when assessing underlying disease and further diagnostic steps.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Pulmonary micrometastasis can cause ventilation challenges and thus high risk anesthesia.
  • Older animals may have other underlying diseases.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ishikawa M, Kondo H, Onuma M et al (2012) Osteoblastic osteosarcoma in a rabbit. Comp Med 62 (2), 124-126 PubMed.
  • Weiss A T & Müller K (2011) Spinal osteolytic sarcoma in a pet rabbit. Vet Rec 168 (10), 266 PubMed.
  • Kondo H, Ishikawa M, Maeda H et al (2007) Spontaneous osteosarcoma in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 44 (5), 691-694 PubMed.
  • von Bomhard W, Goldschmidt M H, Shofer F S et al (2007) Cutaneous neoplasms in pet rabbits: a retrospective study. Vet Pathol 44 (5), 579-588 PubMed.
  • Mazullo G, Russo M, Niutta P P et al (2004) Osteosarcoma with multiple metastases and subcutaneous involvement in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Clin Pathol 33 (2), 102-104 PubMed.
  • Renfrew H, Rest J R & Holden A R (2001) Extraskeletal fibroblastic osteosarcoma in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Small Anim Pract 42 (9), 456-458 PubMed.
  • Buchholz T A, McCabe K, Cobb J et al (1999) TP53 overexpression in radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the rabbit mandible. Radiat Res 151 (3), 278-282 PubMed.
  • Hoover J P, Paulsen D B, Qualls C W et al (1986) Osteogenic sarcoma with subcutaneous involvement in rabbit. JAVMA 189 (9), 1156-1158 PubMed.
  • Walberg J A (1981) Osteogenic sarcoma with metastasis in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci 31 (4), 407-408 PubMed.
  • Amand W B, Riser W H & Biery D N (1973) Spontaneous osteosarcoma with widespread metastasis in a belted Dutch rabbit. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc (6), 577-581 VetMedResource.
  • Weisbroth S H & Hurvitz A (1969) Spontaneous osteogenic sarcoma in Oryctolagus cuniculus with elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Lab Anim Care 19 (2), 263-265 PubMed.
  • Salm R & Field J (1965) Osteosarcoma in a rabbit. J Pathol Bacteriol 89, 400-402 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • von Bomhard W (2013) Rabbits. Cutaneous Masses. In:Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier. pp 351-352. ISBN: 978-1-4160-3969-3.

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