ISSN 2398-2969      

Biosecurity and infection control

Clapis

Introduction

  • Biosecurity are measures put in place to reduce the likelihood of the introduction of infectious diseases, parasites or pests into an area or specific location, such as veterinary premises, or animal facilities.
  • Infection control measures are designed to reduce the transmission of disease agents within and between specific areas once a disease is already present.
  • Biosecurity measures are often not specific to a particular disease or infectious agent. They tend to be a collection of general measures that should be useful for prevention of most infectious agents of concern. Specific biosecurity measures for individual pathogens may be applied as needed.
  • Direct contact is of particular significance for fragile pathogens that are unable to survive for extended periods outside the host.
  • Indirect contact between animals occurs if infection is acquired from contaminated environments or a vector.
  • Contaminated environments might include bedding, hay, bowls, medical equipment and contact with feces.
  • Vectors may be biological; these are organisms that may not cause disease in their own right but may convey infectious organisms from one host to another. An example of this is the myxomatosis virus which is transmitted on the mouthparts of biting arthropods, predominantly mosquitoes and fleas but also Culicoides midges and lice.
  • People may also act as vectors by transporting infection on their skin, shoes or clothing.

Potential infectious pathogens

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Biosecurity measures

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Infection control

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General principles of infection control

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Infection control at premises level and veterinary practices

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Meredith A L & Richardson J (2015) Neurological diseases of rabbits and rodents. J Exotic Pet Med 24 (1), 21-33 VetMedResource.
  • Kerr P J & Donnelly T M (2013) Viral infections of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 16 (2), 437-468 PubMed.
  • Hill W A, Brown J P (2011) Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 14 (3), 519-531 PubMed.
  • Souza M J (2011) One health: zoonoses in the exotic animal practice. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 14 (3), 421-426 PubMed.
  • Carruthers H (2009) Disease surveillance in small animal practice. In Practice 31 (7), 356-358 VetMedResource.
  • Benedict K M, Morley P S, Van Metre D C (2008) Characteristics of biosecurity and infection control programs at veterinary teaching hospitals. JAVMA 233 (5), 767-773 PubMed.
  • Polton G & Elwood C (2008) Keeping it clean: further lessons for infection control. In Practice 30 (3), 167-169 VetMedResource.
  • Wright J G, Jung S, Holman R C et al (2008) Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. JAVMA 232 (12), 1863-1872 PubMed.
  • French N P, Gemmell N J & Buddle B M (2007) Advances in biosecurity to 2010 and beyond: towards integrated detection, analysis and response to exotic pest invasions. N Z Vet J 55 (6), 255-263 PubMed.
  • O'Neil B D (2007) Advances in animal disease surveillance and biosecurity. N Z Vet J 55 (6), 254 PubMed.
  • Wenzel J G & Nusbaum K E (2007) Veterinary expertise in biosecurity and biological risk assessment. JAVMA 230 (10), 1476-1480 PubMed.
  • Watkins R E, Eagleson S, Hall R G et al (2006) Approaches to the evaluation of outbreak detection methods. BMC Public Health 24 (6), 263 PubMed.
  • Henning J, Meers J, Davies P R et al (2005) Survival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in the environment. Epidemiol Infect 133 (4), 719-730 PubMed.
  • Weese J S (2004) Barrier precautions, isolation protocols, and personal hygiene in veterinary hospitals. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract​ 20 (3), 543-559 PubMed.
  • England J J (2002) Biosecurity: safeguarding your veterinarian: client: patient relationship. Vet Clin Food Anim 18 (3), 373-378 PubMed.
  • McColl K A, Merchant J C, Hardy J et al (2002) Evidence for insect transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. Epidemiol Infect 129 (3) 655-663 PubMed.
  • Morley P S (2002) Biosecurity of veterinary practices. Vet Clin Food Anim 18 (1), 133-155 PubMed.
  • Smith D R (2002) Epidemiologic tools for biosecurity and biocontainment. Vet Clin Food Anim 18 (1), 157-175 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Peregrine A S & Armstrong J (2002) Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: part I nonparasitic zoonotic diseases. Can Vet J 43 (8), 631-636 PubMed.
  • Wilson D W & Beers P T (2001) Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products. Rev Sci Tech 20 (2), 379-384 PubMed.

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