ISSN 2398-2969      

Thrombocytopenia

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: lack of formation of platelets (eg benzimidazole toxicity, chemotherapy), or excessive consumption of platelets, eg sepsis, severe blood loss.
  • Signs: spontaneous hemorrhage, ecchymoses and petechiae. Thrombocytopenia is commonly associated with anemia.
  • Diagnosis: platelet count.
  • Treatment: correct initiating cause, blood transfusion.
  • Prognosis: poor when cause is not easily identified in cases with a lack of formation of platelets. Fair to good if only moderate consumption of platelets has occurred.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (caused by either RHDV-1 Viral hemorrhagic disease 1 or RHDV-2 Viral hemorrhagic disease 2) causes mild to moderate thrombocytopenia.
  • Neoplasia: sarcoma, lymphoproliferative neoplasia, uterine adenocarcinoma Uterine adenocarcinoma (commonly also associated with excessive hemorrhage and consumption of platelets).
  • Liver disease Liver: disease/failure: toxicoses, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, hepatic coccidiosis Coccidiosis.
  • Snake and spider envenomation.
  • Aflatoxicosis.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Corticosteroid treatment Therapeutics: glucocorticoids.
  • Sepsis (with disseminated intravascular coagulation) – a common cause of thrombocytopenia in rabbits.
  • Immune-mediated disease.
  • Aplastic anemia.
  • Uterine disease: uterine adenocarcinoma Uterine adenocarcinoma, endometrial aneurysms.
  • Vitamin K deficiency.
  • Warfarin toxicity.
  • Liver lobe torsion Liver: lobe torsion.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Entire females more predisposed to thrombocytopenia due to excessive consumption of platelets associated with uterine disorders.

Pathophysiology

  • The rabbit platelet is approximately 6.1 + 1.1 µm3, with a diameter of 1-3 µm.
  • Platelet counts do not demonstrate a sex difference in rabbits.
  • Normal platelet counts in rabbits are 250-650 x 109/L.
  • Platelets are necessary for proper coagulation.

Timecourse

  • Can be acute or chronic:
    • Acute: severe blood loss, warfarin toxicity, sepsis, uterine hemorrhage.
    • Chronic: aflatoxicosis, liver disease, neoplasia.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bonvehi C, Ardiaca M, Montesinos A et al (2019) Clinicopathologic findings of naturally occurring rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 infection in pet rabbits. Vet Clin Pathol 48 (1), 89-95 PubMed.
  • Asadullah, Ahmed A & Jehan F (2017) Medicinal role of papaya seeds on thrombocyte count tested on healthy rabbits. J Pakistan Med Assoc 67 (5), 785-787 PubMed.
  • Stancu C A, Cărpinișan L, Ghișe A et al (2017) Clinical chemistry, haematology, immune response and histological evaluation of rabbits after immunisation and challenge with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). World Rabbit Sci 25 (4), 357-365.
  • Ishimori M, Michishita M, Yoshimura H et al (2017) Disseminated histiocytic sarcoma with hemophagocytosis in a rabbit. J Vet Med Sci 79 (9), 1503-1506 PubMed.
  • Tavares F L, Peichoto M E, Marcelino J R et al (2016) Platelet participation in the pathogenesis of dermonecrosis induced by Loxosceles gaucho venom. Hum Exp Tox 35 (6), 666-676 PubMed.
  • Graham J E, Orcutt C J, Casale S A et al (2014) Liver lobe torsion in rabbits: 16 cases (2007 to 2012). J Exotic Pet Med 23 (3), 258-265.
  • Motomura G, Yamamoto T, Irisa T et al (2008) Dose effects of corticosteroids on the development of osteonecrosis in rabbits. J Rheumatol 35 (12), 2395-2399 PubMed.
  • Tavares F L, Sousa-e-Silva M C C, Santoro M L et al (2004) Changes in hematological, hemostatic and biochemical parameters induced experimentally in rabbits by Loxosceles gaucho spider venom. Hum Exp Toxicol 23 (10), 477-486 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mayer J & Donnelly T M (2013) Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. Elsevier, USA. pp 752.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code