ISSN 2398-2969      

Ovary: abscess

Clapis

Synonym(s): Tubo-ovarian abscess


Introduction

  • Cause: ascending or hematogenous spread of bacteria.
  • Signs: non-specific anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, discharge from the vulva, reproductive failure.
  • Diagnosis: abdominal ultrasound, CT, MRI, exploratory laparotomy, necropsy.
  • Treatment: antibiotic therapy, ovariohysterectomy.
  • Prognosis: good to fair.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Infection of the reproductive tract with bacteria, most commonly Pasteurella multocida.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Poor environmental hygiene.
  • Overcrowding.
  • Exposure to rabbits carrying Pasteurella multocida.

Specific

  • Increasing age.
  • Positive Pasteurella multocida carrier status.
  • Mating with a carrier or symptomatic male.

Pathophysiology

  • Transmission of Pasteurella multocida from carrier animal to naïve rabbit occurs via several routes:
    • Feco-oral via coprophagy or cecotrophy.
    • Ingestion of bacteria via mutual grooming.
    • Transmission to young during birth.
    • Venereal transmission.
    • Aerosol transmission.
  • Ascending infection tends to occur in breeding females mated with a carrier male:
    • Can occur with or without successful copulation.
    • Bacteria ascend up the reproductive tract.
    • May induce metritis, pyometra or pyosalpingitis before reaching the ovary to form an abscess Abscess.
  • Hematogenous spread:
    • Can occur in unmated females.
    • Initial entry via wound or respiratory tract colonization.
    • Invasion into the blood stream.
    • Spread to internal organs with potential for abscessation including the liver, kidneys and reproductive tract.
    • May occur many weeks or months after initial infection.

Timecourse

  • Incubation varies from 2-3 weeks in acute cases and respiratory disease to prolonged periods for hematogenous forms of disease.
  • Abscessation may be acute, subacute or chronic.
  • Infection with Pasteurella may be lifelong.

Epidemiology

  • Pasteurella multocida Pasteurella multocida is the primary respiratory pathogen reported in rabbits but ovarian abscessation appears to be extremely rare.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bertram CA, Klopfleisch R & Muller K (2017) Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Vet Med Sci 79 (12), 1994-1997 PubMed.
  • Deeb B J & DiGiacomo R E (2000) Respiratory disease of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 3 (2), 465-480 PubMed.
  • Johnson J H & Wolf A M (1993) Ovarian abscesses and pyometra in a domestic rabbit. JAVMA 203 (5), 667-669 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Barthold S W, Griffey S M & Percy D H (2016) Rabbit. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rabbits and Rodents. 4th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 283-285.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Ultrasound. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery. Dentistry and Imaging. BSAVA, UK. pp 94-108.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Neutering. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery. Dentistry and Imaging. BSAVA, UK. pp 138-149.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code