ISSN 2398-2969      

Ovarian neoplasia

Clapis

Synonym(s): Tubo-ovarian neoplasia


Introduction

  • Cause: rare disorder in rabbits and causation is not well understood.  
  • Signs: may be asymptomatic. Non-specific anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, discharge from the vulva, reproductive failure.
  • Diagnosis: abdominal ultrasound, CT, MRI, exploratory laparotomy, necropsy.
  • Treatment: ovariohysterectomy.
  • Prognosis: fair to poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Malignant transformation of ovarian tissue:
    • Most cases due to granulosa cell neoplasia:
      • Adenoma.
      • Adenocarcinoma.
    • Lutein cell origin:
      • Luteoma.
    • Other ovarian tissues:
      • Hemangioma.
  • Ovary as secondary site of metastasis:

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • May develop concurrent to uterine infection or neoplasia.
  • Rare site of metastasis for neoplasms arising in other tissues, eg uterus.

Pathophysiology

  • Malignant transformation of ovarian tissue or invasion by metastatic tissue → compression of ovarian tissues → impaired ovulation and reduced fertility.
  • Progressive dilation resulting in ovarian enlargement → compression of surrounding structures causing abdominal pain an anorexia.
  • Invasion of uterine tissue or concurrent uterine disease → uterine inflammation, hyperplasia or neoplasia → vulval discharge and hematuria.
  • Metastasis of primary ovarian disease to uterine mesentery, spleen and omentum with potential for systemic spread.

Timecourse

  • Clinical signs can develop over weeks to months depending upon the type of neoplasia, relative size and involvement of other organ systems.
  • In many rabbits may only be identified following investigation of concurrent uterine disease.

Epidemiology

  • Very rarely reported in rabbits but should always be considered in any rabbit presenting with urogenital disease.
  • Most often seen with concurrent uterine disease in rabbits.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McLean E J, Woodward A P, Ryan S D (2020) Comparison of the use of a vessel-sealing device versus ligatures for occlusion of uterine tissues during ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Am J Vet Res 81 (9), 755-759 PubMed.
  • Rosell J M, de la Fuente L F, Carbajo M T et al (2020) Reproductive disease in farmed rabbit does. Animals 10 (10), 1873 PubMed.
  • Bertram C A, Muller K & Klopfleisch R (2018) Genital tract pathology in female pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a retrospective study of 854 necropsy examinations and 152 biopsy samples. J Comp Path 164, 17-26 PubMed.
  • Bertram C A, Klopfleisch R & Muller K (2017) Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Vet Med Sci 79 (12), 1994-1997 PubMed.
  • Harcourt-Brown F M (2017) Disorders of the reproductive tract of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 20 (2), 555-587 PubMed.
  • Askari N, Akhtardanesh B & Kheirandish R (2012) Concurrent cystic endometrial hyperplasia, ovarian luteoma and biliary cyst adenoma in an aged rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): case report and literature review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2 (3), S1975-S1978 PubMed.
  • Greene H S N & Strauss J S (1949) Multiple primary tumours in the rabbit. Cancer 2 (4), 673-691 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Barthold S W, Griffey S M & Percy D H (2016) Chapter 6 – Rabbit. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rabbits and Rodents. 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, USA. pp 283-285.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Chapter 8 – Ultrasound. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. BSAVA, UK. pp 94-108.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Chapter 12 – Neutering. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. BSAVA, UK. pp 138-149.
     

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