ISSN 2398-2969      

Ovarian cysts

Clapis

Synonym(s): Tubo-ovarian cyst, Paraovarian cyst, Cystic rete ovarii


Introduction

  • Cause: dependent upon cyst type. May be spontaneous, congenital or due to impaired ovulation.
  • Signs: non-specific anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, discharge from the vulva, reproductive failure. May be asymptomatic.
  • Diagnosis: abdominal ultrasound, CT, MRI, exploratory laparotomy, necropsy.
  • Treatment: ovariohysterectomy.
  • Prognosis: good to fair.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Follicular cysts:
    • Intraovarian cysts.
    • Form from failure of one or more Graafian follicles to ovulate or regress causing progressive dilation.
    • Likely to be hormonally active.
  • Cystic rete ovarii:
    • Intraovarian cysts.
    • Arise from tubular structure extending from ovarian hilus to medulla.
    • Spontaneous formation and may be congenital.
    • Not thought to be hormonally active.
  • Paraovarian cysts:
    • Extraovarian cysts.
    • Arise from mesometrium as remnants of mesonephric ducts.
    • Spontaneous or congenital.
    • Not thought to be hormonally active.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Intraovarian cysts may develop from impaired ovulation due to stress, malnutrition or systemic disease.

Specific

  • Intraovarian cysts:
    • Increasing age.
    • May develop concurrent to uterine disease, eg endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia or inflammatory uterine disorders.
  • Extraovarian cysts: developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract.

Pathophysiology

  • Follicular cysts:
    • Rabbits are induced ovulators → lack of mating stimulus or systemic disease may impair LH surge.
    • One or more mature Graafian follicles develop → fail to undergo ovulation to form corpora lutea.
    • Progressive dilation resulting in ovarian enlargement → compression of surrounding structures.
    • Continued production of estrogens → secondary or concurrent uterine hyperplasia → inflammatory or neoplastic uterine disease Uterine adenocarcinoma may develop → impaired fertility and vulval discharge Vagina: discharge.
  • Cystic rete ovarii:
    • Arise in the ovarian medulla or at tubal extremity of ovary → lined by ciliated columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells with external spindle-shaped stromal layer.
    • Expansion into ovarian stroma → ovarian enlargement → compression of surrounding structures and disruption of ovary.
    • Inciting cause and hormonal effects not well understood but tend to occur concurrent to uterine neoplasia or hyperplasia.
  • Paraovarian cysts:
    • Arise in mesometrium and distinct from ovarian tissue → lined by epithelial tissue.
    • Mostly asymptomatic but may cause organ compression if very large.
    • Very rare in rabbits so cause is unclear.

Timecourse

  • Intraovarian cysts:
    • Clinical signs develop in weeks to months depending upon cyst size, number and hormonal effects.
    • Often asymptomatic until very large.
  • Paraovarian cysts: often asymptomatic so may be present lifelong.

Epidemiology

  • Ovarian cysts are rare in rabbits but frequently develop concurrently with uterine disease and should always be suspected in rabbits with urogenital disorders.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rosell J M, de la Fuente L F, Carbajo M T et al (2020) Reproductive disease in farmed rabbit does. Animals 10 (10), 1873 PubMed.
  • Savietto D, Martinez-Paredes E & Pascual J J (2019) Influences of environment on the development and lifetime reproductive performance in domestic rabbit females. World Rab Sci 27 (3), 123-133 VetMedResource.
  • Bertram C A, Muller K & Klopfleisch R (2018) Genital tract pathology in female pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a retrospective study of 854 necropsy examinations and 152 biopsy samples. J Comp Path 164, 17-26 PubMed.
  • Bertram C A, Klopfleisch R & Muller K (2017) Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Vet Med Sci 79 (12), 1994-1997 PubMed.
  • Harcourt-Brown F M (2017) Disorders of the reproductive tract of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 20 (2), 555-587 PubMed.
  • Geyer A, Poth T, Otzdorff C et al (2016) Histopathologic examination of the genital tract in rabbits treated once or twice with a slow-release deslorelin implant for reversible suppression of ovarian function. Theriogenol 86 (9), 2281-2289 PubMed.
  • Chambers J K, Uchida K, Ise K et al (2014) Cystic rete ovarii and uterine tube adenoma in a rabbit. J Vet Med Sci 76 (6), 909-912 PubMed.
  • Lopez-Bejar M A, Lopez-Gatius F, Camon J et al (1998) Morphological features and effects on reproductive parameters of ovarian cysts of follicular origin in superovulated rabbit does. Reprod Dom Anim 33 (6), 369-378.

Other sources of information

  • Barthold S W, Griffey S M & Percy D H (2016) Chapter 6 – Rabbit. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rabbits and Rodents. 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, USA. pp 283-285.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Chapter 8 – Ultrasound. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery. Dentistry and Imaging. 1st edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 94-108.
  • Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J (2014) Chapter 12 – Neutering. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery. Dentistry and Imaging. 1st edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 138-149.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code