ISSN 2398-2969      

Listeria monocytogenes

Clapis

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Listeriaceae.
  • Genus: Listeria.
  • Species: monocytogenes.

Etymology

  • Listeria: named after Lord Lister, an English surgeon and pioneer of antisepsis.
  • Monocytogenes: monocyte-producing.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Found widespread in the environment, eg in soil, silage, stream water or sewage.
  • Found in numerous animal species but most commonly in ruminants; occasionally it is found in swine, horses, dogs, cats and rabbits. Septicemic listeriosis has been reported in wild hares.

Lifecycle

  • Entry into the body through gastrointestinal tract.
  • Pathogen grows and proliferates within phagocytes.
  • Lysis of the phagocyte causes spread of the pathogen to surrounding cells.
  • The bacteria can polymerise actin by means of the protein Act A, enhancing their intracellular mobility.
  • L. monocytogenes is facultatively intracellular (in monocytes).

Transmission

  • Primarily feed-bourne.
  • Mainly via the fecal-oral route.
  • Penetration through damaged mucosal surfaces can occur.
  • D-galactose residues on the surface of L. monocytogenes attach to D-galactose receptors on host cell walls, commonly M cells and Peyer's patches of the host's intestinal mucosa. L. monocytogenes then translocates past the intestinal membrane and into the body.
  • In rabbits, L. monocytogenes has a predilection for the gravid uterus in advanced pregnancy.

Pathological effects

  • Uterine infection.
  • Abortion.
  • Infertility.
  • Liver disease Liver: disease.
  • Sudden death.
  • Rarely, neurological pathology (heat tilt Head tilt (torticollis) linked to meningoencephalitis) is seen in the rabbit.

Other Host Effects

  • Immunity to L. monocytogenes is mainly cell-mediated via TH cells.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rothenburger J L, Bennett K R, Bryan L et al (2015) Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. J Wildlife Dis 51 (2), 503-508 PubMed.
  • Zhu L, Stewart D, Reineke K et al (2012) Comparison of swab transport media for recovery of L. monocytogenes from environmental samples. J Food Protection 75 (3), 580-584 PubMed.
  • Murray E G D, Webb R A & Swann M B R (1926) A disease of rabbits characterized by a large mononuclear leukocytosis caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus Bacterium monocytogenes (n. sp.). J Pathol 29 (4), 407-439 Wiley Online Library.

Other sources of information

  • Pimus Labs - Client Guidelines. Listeria Sampling - Swab Method. Website: www.primuslabs.com. Last accessed 18th February 2016.
  • VetBac - Listeria monocytogenes. Website: www.vetbact.org. Last accessed 16th February 2016.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code