ISSN 2398-2950      

Urethra: catheterization

ffelis

Introduction

  • The commonest reason for the urethra to be catheterized in cats is due to urethral obstruction Urethra: obstruction and secondly to facilitate a urinary investigation.
  • Feline urethral obstruction is usually due to feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD).
  • Male cats are most commonly affected and the obstruction comprises of crystals, mucous, uroliths and urethral plugs either alone or in combination.
  • Urethral spasm is always present during and after an obstruction is relieved and should never be underestimated in its ability to cause ongoing discomfort and signs of dysuria.
Use the interactive tool from ROYAL CANIN® UK  to explain cat anatomy and disease conditions to your client. Visit ROYAL CANIN Natom Explorer to find out more.

Uses

  • To drain the bladder of urine on a single occasion or to act as an indwelling urinary catheter.
  • To obtain a urine sample for diagnostic purposes if cystocentesis Cystocentesis is not successful or is contraindicated.
  • To facilitate contrast radiographic studies of the urinary tract.
  • To act as a stent for urethral mucosal healing if urethral rupture present.

Advantages

  • Equipment readily available and not expensive.
  • Modern catheters now made from materials that are less rigid and less irritant to urethral mucosa.

Disadvantages

  • Potential for urethral contusion and iatrogenic urethral rupture Urethra: rupture if the catheterization is not performed with care and anatomical considerations taken into account.
  • Culture and sensitivity Urinalysis: culture and sensitivity on a catheter urine sample may result in false positive or spurious results due to contamination introduced at the time of catheterization. The technique is, however, superior to free-flow samples for culture and sensitivity.
  • Indwelling urinary catheters are associated with a high incidence of ascending urinary tract infection Cystitis: bacterial.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Holroyd K & Humm K (2016) Standards of care for feline urethral catheters in the UK. J Fel Med Surg 18 (2), 172-175 PubMed.
  • Corgozinho K B, de Souza H J, Pereira A N et al (2007) Catheter induced urethral trauma in cats with urethral obstruction. J Fel Med Surg (6), 481-486 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Feline Urethral Obstruction (FUO): how to unblock a cat. VETgirl Veterinary CE Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x0HsTgPuP14.
  • Jasani S (2011) Urinary tract emergencies. In: Small Animal Emergency Medicine. Saunders Elsevier, Ch 36, pp 215-223.

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