Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Splenectomy

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Joseph Harari, Dan Smeak

Introduction

  • Surgical removal of the spleen is known as splenectomy. In rare cases, preservation of splenic function may be attempted with partial splenectomy for known non-neoplastic processes such as abscesses or hematomas, however, it should not be considered if neoplasia has not been ruled out.

Uses

  • Primary splenic neoplasia Spleen: neoplasia.
  • Some myeloproliferative neoplasia Myeloid leukemia.
  • Severe splenic trauma Spleen: trauma.
  • Splenic hematoma.
  • Splenic infarction.
  • Splenic abscess.
  • (Splenic torsion has not been reported in cats.)

Advantages

  • Splenectomy is performed by ligation, stapling, or vessel-sealing of the hilar vessels supplying the organ. Ligation and complete removal of the spleen is considered to hold less risk for postoperative hemorrhage than simple repair of severe splenic lacerations or trauma, or partial splenectomy.

Disadvantages

  • The spleen responds primarily to disseminated blood-borne antigens such as circulating bacteria in septicemia and some parasitic infections. Resurgence of certain parasitic diseases may occur after splenectomy.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prognosis

  • Depends largely on the reason for the splenectomy.
  • Cats undergoing splenectomy for trauma, abscess or benign mass that survive the perioperative course have favorable outcomes.
  • Mast cell tumor Mastocytoma : median survival time following splenectomy is 12 months (range 2-34 months).
  • Lymphosarcoma Lymphoma: prognosis depends on the grade of lymphoma. For high-grade lymphoma treated with multidrug, injectable chemotherapy, response rates are expected to be about 70%, and median survival times are about 6-8 months.
  • Hemangiosarcoma Hemangiosarcoma: this is an aggressive form of cancer in cats and metastasis is common. Survival beyond 6 months is uncommon.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • O'Donnell E, Mayhew P, Culp W et al (2013) Laparoscopic splenectomy: operative technique and outcome in three cats. J Fel Med Surg 15, 48-52 PubMed.
  • Bacek L M, Macintire D K (2011) Treatment of primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia with mycophenolate mofetil in two cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care21, 45-49 PubMed.
  • Gordon S S, McClaran J K, Bergman P J et al (2010) Outcome following splenectomy in cats. J Feline Med Surg 12 (4), 256-261 PubMed.
  • Litster A L, Sorenmo K U (2006) Characterisation of the signalment, clinical and survival characteristics of 41 cats with mast cell neoplasia. J Feline Med Surg 8, 177-183 PubMed.
  • Spangler W L & Culbertson M R (1992) Prevalence and type of splenic disease in cats: 455 cases (1985-1991). JAVMA 201 (5), 773-6 PubMed.
  • Hosgood G, Bone D L et al (1989) Splenectomy in the dog by ligation of the splenic and short gastric arteries. Vet Surg 18, 110-113 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vail D M (2013) Feline lymphoma and leukemia. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology, St. Louis, Saunders Elsevier. pp 638-653.
  • Moore A S, Oglivie G K (2001) Splenic, hepatic, and pancreatic tumors.In: Feline Oncology: A Comprehensive Guide to Compassionate Care. Trenton, Veterinary Learning Systems. pp 295-310.


ADDED