ISSN 2398-2950      

Radiography: dental extra-oral parallel

ffelis

Introduction

  • See also dental radiography overview Dental radiography: overview.
  • Extra-oral technique positions the x-ray film outside the mouth.
  • Parallel technique positions the film parallel with the object (tooth).

Uses

  • Maxillary pre-molars and molars, particularly in the cat.
    Less useful for mandibular molars/pre-molars because mandible narrower than maxilla   →   more superimposition of tooth images.
  • Good for large lesions such as oral neoplasms.

Advantages

  • Can use standard cassettes with intensifying screens.
  • Can use non-screen film of varying sizes.
  • Reduces superimposition by the zygomatic arch.

Disadvantages

  • Teeth may appear magnified, poor detail.
  • Superimposition of other irrelevant images.
  • Proper evaluation of individual teeth is difficult.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Smithson A (2006) Oral radiology Part 2. UK Vet 11 (1), 40-44.
  • Smithson A (2005) Oral radiology Part 1. UK Vet 10 (8), 57.
  • Gorrel C (2004) Veterinary Dentistry for the General Practitioner. Saunders.
  • Mulligan, Allen, Williams (1998) Atlas of canine and feline dental radiography. In: Veterinary Learning Systems. Trenton, NJ, USA (Excellent reference for dental radiography).

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