Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Pericardiocentesis

Synonym(s): Pericardial drainage

Contributor(s): Serena Brownlie, Pedro Oliveira

Introduction

  • There is a potential space between the myocardium and the pericardium (the pericardial sac).
  • This may become distended with fluid.
  • Pressure within the pericardial sac compromises cardiac function (cardiac tamponade- particularly by causing collapse of the thinner-walled right ventricle).
  • Cardiac tamponade   →   acute congestive heart failure Heart: congestive heart failure.

Uses

Advantages

  • Minimally invasive procedure when correctly performed.
  • Produces rapid benefit to patient.

Disadvantages

  • Risk of lacerating myocardium or coronary arteries.
  • May be unable to drain all fluid from pericardial sac.
  • Risk of recurrence of fluid accumulation.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Guarded/poor prognosis for septic pericarditis and neoplasia.
  • Poor prognosis for drainage of FIP Feline infectious peritonitis related effusions.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rush J E, Keene B W, Fox P R (1990) Pericardial disease in the cat, a retrospective evaluation of 66 cases. JAAHA 26 (1), 39-46 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Tobias A H (2010) Pericardial diseases. In: Ettinger S J, Feldman E C Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 7th edn. Saunders Elsevier. Chapter 253, pp 1342-1352.
  • Kienle R D, Kittleson M D (2005) Pericardial disease and cardiac neoplasia. In:Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine.St Louis: Mosby.
  • Sisson D, Thomas W (1999) Pericardial disease and cardiac tumours. In: Fox P R, Sisson D, Moise N S Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 2nd edn. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. Chapter 29, pp 679-701.


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