ISSN 2398-2950      

Hematology: D-dimers

ffelis

Overview

  • Specific marker for activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis.
  • D-dimers are a more specific form of fibrin degradation products Fibrin degradation products.
  • Formed by the action of plasmin on cross-linked fibrin, hence not affected by lysis of fibrinogen.
  • Negative D-dimers excludes DIC in dogs with a confidence level of 95%.
  • Moderately sensitive (~90%) but non-specific for thrombosis in dogs with mild elevations.
  • Large elevations are more specific but less sensitive in dogs.
  • Neither sensitive nor specific in cats.

Sampling

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Tests

Methodologies

  • Semi-quantitative latex agglutination tests and a point-of care immunometric test have been validated for use in dogs.
  • Quantitative immunoturbidimetric assays are available through reference laboratories.
  • Latex agglutination and immunoturbidometric assays have been reported in cats but their utility and validity is less clear.

Availability

  • Widely available through reference laboratories with some semi-quantitative point-of-care assays also available.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Elevations in D-dimers above the reference range are reported to be 80-90% sensitive for the detection of thrombosis or DIC in dogs.
  • The sensitivity of D-dimer elevations for detecting DIC Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cats is reported to be 67% or less.

Specificity

  • Mild elevations of D-dimers are non-specific in any species when compared to sick controls but good when compared to a healthy control population.
  • Reported specificity in dogs for detection of thrombosis or DIC in the region of 25%.
  • Reported specificity in cats for detection of DIC in the region of 50%.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Does not provide a diagnosis with elevations occurring due to thrombosis, hemorrhage, DIC or many inflammatory/neoplastic conditions that are not overtly associated with hemostatic problems.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Elevations may occur with hemolysis or activation of clotting ex-vivo.

Result Data

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Tholen I, Weingart C, Kohn B (2009) Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). J Feline Med Surg 10, 842-846.
  • Brazzell J L, Borjesson D L (2007) Evaluation of plasma antithrombin activity and D-dimer concentration in populations of healthy cats, clinically ill cats, and cats with cardiomyopathy. Vet Clin Pathol 36 (1), 79-84 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. (2008) Steven L Stockham and Michael A. Scott. 2nd edn, Blackwell Publishing.

MEMBER BENEFIT

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code