Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Moxidectin

Synonym(s): Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bravecto® Plus

Contributor(s): Linda Horspool, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

Name

  • Moxidectin.

Class of drug

  • A milbemycin, member of the macrocyclic lactone (macrolide) antimicrobial class.

Description

Chemical name

  • (2aE,4E,8E)-(52S,6R,62S,11R,13R,15S,17aR,20R,20aR,20bS)-62-[(1E)-1,3-dimethylbut-1-enyl]-52,62,10,11,14,15,17a,20,20a,20b-decahydro-20,20b-dihydroxy-52,6,8,19-tetramethylspiro[11,15-methano-2H,13H,17H-furo[4,3,2-pq][2,6]benzodioxacyclooctadecin-13,22-[2H]pyran]-42,17(32H,6H)-dione 42-(E)-(O-methyloxime).

Molecular formula

  • C37H53NO8

Molecular weight

  • 639.84

Physical properties

  • Water Solubility (at 25 °C, pH 7): 51 ppb.
  • Octanol-water Partition Coefficient: 58.3.
  • Photolysis half-life:  6.8 hours.
  • Finished product: 
    • Spot-on solution. 
      • Advocate/Advantage Multi - clear, yellow to brownish solution. 
      • Bravecto Plus - clear, colorless to yellow solution.

Storage requirements

  • Product as packaged for sale: Advocate/Advantage Multi - Do not store above 30 °C. 

Uses

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Indications

  • Endectocide - activity against endo- and ectoparasites. 
  • Broad spectrum including: 
    • Developmental stages of filarial nematodes (eg Dirofilaria immitis  Dirofilaria immitis  ). 
    • Gastrointestinal nematodes. 
    • Arachnids, such as mites. 
  • Moxidectin lacks substantial efficacy against fleas and ticks.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • No other antiparasitic macrocyclic lactone should be administered concurrently.  
  • No interactions with routinely used veterinary medicinal products or medical or surgical procedures have been observed.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Diakou A, Dimzas D, Astaras C, Savvas I, Di Cesare A, Morelli S, Neofitos Κ, Migli D, Traversa D (2020) Clinical investigations and treatment outcome in a European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) infected by cardio-pulmonary nematodes. Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 100357. doi: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100357 PubMed
  • Heuer L, Petry G, Pollmeier M, Schaper R, Deuster K, Schmidt H, Blazejak K, Strube C, Di Cesare A, Traversa D, Schnyder M, McKay-Demeler J, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Mangold-Gehring S, Böhm C (2020) Efficacy of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 1% spot-on formulation (Advocate®) in the prevention and treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis. Parasit Vectors 13, 65 PubMed
  • Diakou A, Morelli S, Dimzas D, Di Cesare A, Capelli G, Parrinello C, Pollmeier M, Schaper R, Traversa D (2019) Efficacy of a moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on formulation (Advocate®) for the treatment of Troglostrongylus brevior in naturally infected cats in a field study in Greece. Parasit Vectors 12 (1), 519 PubMed
  • Otranto D, Solari Basano F, Pombi M, Capelli G, Nazzari R, Falsone L, Petry G, Pollmeier M G, Lia R P (2019) Effectiveness of the spot-on combination of moxidectin and imidacloprid (Advocate®) in the treatment of ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infected cats. Parasit Vectors 12, 25 PubMed
  • Rohdich N, Zschiesche E, Wolf O, Loehlein W, Kirkova Z, Iliev P, Rapti D, Postoli R, Capári B, Farkas R, Roepke R K A (2018) A randomized, blinded, controlled, multi-centered field study assessing the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cats with fluralaner plus moxidectin spot-on solution (Bravecto® Plus). Parasit Vectors 11, 589 PubMed
  • Taenzler J, de Vos C, Roepke R K A, Heckeroth A R (2018) Efficacy of fluralaner plus moxidectin (Bravecto® Plus spot-on solution for cats) against Otodectes cynotis infestations in cats. Parasit Vectors 11, 595 PubMed.  
  • Di Cesare A, Veronesi F, Capelli G, Deuster K, Schaper R, Basano FS, Nazzari R, Paoletti B, Traversa D (2017) Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1 % spot-on formulation (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi) in cats naturally infected with Capillaria aerophila. Parasitol Res 116(Suppl 1), 55-64 PubMed
  • Short J, Gram D (2016) Successful treatment of Demodex gatoi with 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 52, 68-72 PubMed
  • Bourguinat C, Lee A C, Lizundia R, Blagburn B L, Liotta J L, Kraus M S, Keller K, Epe C, Letourneau L, Kleinman C L, Paterson T, Gomez E C, Montoya-Alonso J A, Smith H, Bhan A, Peregrine A S, Carmichael J, Drake J, Schenker R, Kaminsky R, Bowman D D, Geary T G, Prichard R K (2015) Macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis: Failure of heartworm preventives and investigation of genetic markers for resistance. Vet Parasitol 210,167-78 PubMed
  • Hellmann K, Petry G, Capari B, Cvejic D, Krämer F (2013) Treatment of naturally Notoedres cati-infested cats with a combination of imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1 % spot-on (Advocate® / Advantage® Multi, Bayer). Parasitol Res 112 Suppl 1, 57-66 PubMed.  
  • Janko C, Geyer J (2013) Moxidectin has a lower neurotoxic potential but comparable brain penetration in P-glycoprotein-deficient CF-1 mice compared to ivermectin. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36, 275-284 PubMed.
  • Taweethavonsawat P, Chungpivat S, Watanapongchati S, Traub R J, Schaper R (2012) Efficacy of a spot on combination containing imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 1% (Advocate(®)/Advantage(®) Multi, Bayer Animal Health) against Ancylostoma ceylanicum in cats. Vet Parasitol 190, 289-293 PubMed.
  •  Hellmann K, Knoppe T, Radeloff I, Heine J (2003) The anthelmintic efficacy and the safety of a combination of imidacloprid and moxidectin spot-on in cats and dogs under field conditions in Europe. Parasitol Res 90 Suppl 3, S142-143 PubMed.
  • von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Epe C, Schimmel A, Heine J (2003) Larvicidal and persistent efficacy of an imidacloprid and moxidectin topical formulation against endoparasites in cats and dogs. Parasitol Res 90 Suppl 3, S114-115 PubMed.

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