ISSN 2398-2950      

Methotrexate

ffelis

Introduction

Name

  • Methotrexate.

Class of drug

  • Antimetabolite antineoplastic agent.

Description

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature.
  • Reconstituted powder stable for 4 weeks at room temperature and for 3 months under refrigeration when diluted to 2-25 mg/ml.

Uses

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Indications

  • Lymphomas   Lymphoma  and some solid tumors.
  • This may be limited by its toxicity when used in a high dose regimen.
  • In human medicine it is also used to treat refractory rheumatoid arthritis.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Chloramphenicol, oral anticoagulants, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, salicylates, sulfonamides and tetracycline

  • Methotrexate is highly bound to serum albumin and thus may be displaced, resulting in increased blood levels and toxicity.

Folic acid supplements

  • May inhibit the response to methotrexate.

Pyrimethamine

  • A similar folic acid antagonist, may increase methotrexate toxicity.

Cytarabine

  • Increased cytotoxicity.

Hydrocortisone, hydroxyurea, methylprednisolone

  • Cellular uptake of methotrexate decreased.

Amphotericin B, vincristine

  • Cellular uptake of methotrexate increased.

NSAIDs

  • Increased risk of hematologic, renal and hepatic toxicity.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Fischer D S, Knobf M T et al (2003) The Cancer Chemotherapy Handbook. 6th edn. Mosby, USA. pp 167-171.
  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant B (1999) 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Plumb D (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd Edn. Iowa State University Press.
  • Fraizier D L & Hahn K A (1995) Commonly Used Drugs. In: Cancer Chemotherapy A Veterinary Handbook. Eds: Hahn K A & Richardson R C. Williams & Wilkins, USA. pp 112-113.
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