ISSN 2398-2950      

Gabapentin

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Jo Murrell


Introduction

Name

  • Gabapentin.

Class of drug

  • Anti-epileptic drug (GABA[gamma-aminobutyric acid] agonist) - analog of GABA.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Liquid form store in refrigerator.

Uses

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Indications

  • Management of neuropathic pain in man, for example painful diabetic neuropathy or post herpetic neuralgia.
  • Prevention of Chronic Post Surgical Pain in man.
  • Reduction in acute post-surgical pain in man.
  • The efficacy of gabapentin to treat neuropathic or acute post surgical pain in cats is poorly documented and largely anecdotal or based on published case reports involving very few animals. However, in contrast to dogs, there are data describing the pharmacokinetics and dynamics (using a brief noxious heat stimulus) in experimental cats.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • None confirmed with any other anti-convulsants   Therapeutics: anesthesia and analgesia  but it may prolong half-life of felbamate by 50% when the two drugs are used together.
  • Oral clearance may decrease when given with cimetidine   Cimetidine  .
  • Does NOT reduce the MAC of isoflurane in cats.

with diagnostic tests

  • Can give false positive urine protein tests (human data).
  • May also give rise to altered liver function tests in humans. Not known if this is clinically relevant in cats.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Lorenz N D, Comerford E J & Iff I (2013) Long term use of gabapentin for musculoskeletal disease and trauma in three cats. J Feline Med Surg 156, 507-512 PubMed
  • Steagall PV & Monteiro-Steagall B P (2013) Multimodal analgesia for perioperative pain in three cats. J Feline Med Surg 15, 737-743 PubMed.
  • Vettorato E & Corletto F (2011) Gabapentin as part of multi-modal analgesia in two cats suffering multiple injuries (letter). Vet Anaesth Analg 38, 518-520 PubMed.
  • Pypendop B H, Siao K T & Ilkiw J E (2010) Thermal antinociceptive effect of orally administered gabapentin in healthy cats. Am J Vet Res 71, 1027-1032 PubMed.
  • Reid P, Pypendop B H & Ilkiw J E (2010) The effects of intravenous gabapentin administration on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Anaesth Analg 111, 633-637.
  • Hachad H, Ragueneau-Majlessi I & Levy R H (2002) New antiepileptic drugs: review on drug interactions. Therapeut Drug Monitoring 24, 91-103. PubMed
  • Jensen A A, Mosbacher J, Elg S et al (2002) The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors. Molec Pharmacol 61,1377-1384 PubMed.
  • Honmou O, Kocsis J D & Richerson G B (1995) Gabapentin potentiates the conductance increase induced by nipecotic acid in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro.Epilepsy Res 20,193-202 PubMed.
  • Radulovic L L, Turck D, Von Hodenberg A et al (1995) Disposition of gabapentin (neurontin) in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. Drug Metab Dispos 23, 441-448 PubMed.
  • Macdonald R L and Kelly K M (1993) Antiepileptic drug mechanisms of action. Epilepsia 34 Suppl 5, S1-S8.

Other sources of information

  • KuKanich B (2013) Outpatient oral analgesics in dogs and cats beyond non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:  an evidence based approach. Vet Clin Small Anim 43, 1109-1125.
  • Clarke H, Bonin R P, Orser B A, Englesakis M, Wijeysunder D N (2012) The prevention of Chronic Postsurgical Pain using gabapentin and pregabalin: a combined systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesth Analgesia 115, 428-442
  • Weinbroum A A (2012) Non-opioid IV adjuncts in the peri-operative period: pharmacological and clinical aspects of ketamine and gabapentinoids. Pharmacological Research 65, 411-429.
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