ISSN 2398-2950      

Enrofloxacin

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Introduction

Name

  • Enrofloxacin.

Class of drug

  • Antibiotic.
  • Antimicrobial.
  • Fluoroquinolone.

Description

Chemical name

  • 1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C19H22FN3O3.

Storage requirements

  • <30°C.
  • In a dry environment.

Uses

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Indications

  • Gram-negative infections:Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellaspp ,Escherichia coli  Escherichia coli  ,Proteusspp   Proteus spp  andSalmonellaspp   Salmonella spp  .
  • SomePseudomonasspp, depending on site of infection and dose used.
  • Other infections:Brucellaspp,Chlamydiaspp,Mycoplasmaspp,Staphylococcusspp   Staphylococcus spp  ,Pasturellaspp   Pasteurella multocida  and someMycobacteriaspp   Mycobacterium tuberculosis  .
  • Enrofloxacin is effective against many beta-lactamase producing bacteria.
  • The fluoroquinolones are highly lipophilic drugs which attain high concentrations within the cells of many tissues and are particularly effective in the management of soft tissue, urogenital (including prostatic) and skin infections.
    Not effective against anaerobic infections, Streptococcus or Enterococcus.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Antibiotics

  • Combination with chloramphenicol   Chloramphenicol  , macrolide antibiotics or tetracyclines   Tetracycline   may produce antagonistic effects.

Absorbents and antacids containing cations (Mg, Al)

Sucralfate and zinc salts

  • Inhibit absorption; separate doses of these drugs by 6-8 hours   Sucralfate  .

Theophylline

  • Increases plasma theophylline levels   Theophylline  (in humans) - monitor carefully.

NSAIDs (non-seroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

  • Potential pharmacodynamic interactions in the CNS could lead to seizures (in susceptible animals).

Probenecid

  • Blocks the tubular secretion of fluoroquinolones and may increase its blood level and half-life.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Blondeau J M, Borsos S, Blondeau L D, Blondeau B J (2012) In vitro killing ofEscherichia coliStaphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat. Vet Microbiol 155 (2-4), 284-290 PubMed.
  • Ramirez C J (2011) Molecular genetic basis for fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats. Pharmacogenet Genomics 21 (2), 66-75 PubMed.
  • Shaheen B W, Boothe D M, Oyarzabal O A, Wang C, Johnson C M (2011) Evaluation of the contribution of gyrA mutation and efflux pumps to fluoroquinolone and multidrug resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats. Am J Vet Res 72 (1), 25-32 PubMed.
  • Ford M M, Dubielzig R R, Giuliano E A, Moore C P, Narfström K L (2007)Ocular and systemic manifestations after oral administration of a high dose of enrofloxacin in cats. Am J Vet Res 68 (2), 190-202 PubMed.
  • Gerhardt N, Schulz B S, Werckenthin C, Hartmann K (2006)Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its efficacy in comparison with doxycycline in the treatment ofChlamydophila felisinfection in cats with conjunctivitis. Vet Rec 159 (18), 591-594 PubMed.
  • Seguin M A, Papich M G, Sigle K J, Gibson N M, Levy J K (2004) Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in neonatal kittens. Am J Vet Res 65 (3), 350-356.
  • Wiebe V, Hamilton P (2002) Fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats. JAVMA 221 (11),1568-1571 PubMed.
  • Gelatt K N, van der Woerdt A, Ketring K Let al(2001)Enrofloxacin-associated retinal degeneration in cats. Vet Ophthal 4, 99-106 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Ramsey I (2010) 6th edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN: 978 1 905319 11 4.
  • First International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 1992.
  • Second International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 1996.
  • Fourth International Veterinary Symposium on Baytril Proceedings 2009.
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