Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Ultrasonography: GI system

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses
  • Investigation of:
    • Palpable or radiographic gastrointestinal masses.
    • Gastrointestinal obstructions.
  • Identification of non-palpable gastrointestinal lesions.
  • Assessment of peristalsis.
  • Investigation of weight loss   Weight loss  .
  • Investigation of diarrhea   Inflammatory bowel disease: overview  .
  • Investigation of vomiting   Vomiting  .

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration or biopsy.

Time requirement will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • Will require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Intraluminal gas interfering with image quality although less of a problem than in dogs.
  • Ultrasound should be performed before administration of contrast eg barium.

Alternatives

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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technique

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Normal Anatomy

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Boysen S R, Tidwell A S, Penninck D G (2003) Ultrasonographic findings in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal perforation. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44 (5), 556-564 PubMed.
  • Newell S M, Graham J P, Roberts G D et al (1999) Sonography of the Normal Feline Gastrointestinal Tract. Vet Radiology and Ultrasound 40 (1), 40-43 PubMed
  • Penninck D G, Moore A S, Tidwell A S et al (1994) Ultrasonography of Alimentary Lymphosarcoma in the Cat. Vet Radiology and Ultrasound 35 (4), 299-304 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Homco L D (1996) Gastrointestinal tract. In: Small Animal Ultrasound Ed: Green R W. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. pp149-175.
  • Penninck D G (1995) Ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Veterinary Diagnostic Ultrasound Eds: Nyland T G & Mattoon J S. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp125-140.


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