Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Therapeutics: cardiovascular

Contributor(s): Serena Brownlie, Sonja Fonfara, Phil Fox, Claire Targett, Liz Bode

Introduction

  • When cardiac function is compromised it can lead to congestive heart failure or arrhythmia formation. 
  • In congestive heart failure the aim is to remove the congestion and improve cardiac performance, where possible. 
  • Drugs used for the management of congestive heart failure include: 
    • Diuretics 
    • Pimobendan. 
    • ACE inhibitors. 
    • Spironolactone. 
    • Other positive inotropes and vasodilators. 
  • Arrhythmias can come in multiple different forms and not all require treatment. 
  • Drugs used to manage ventricular tachycardias include: 
    • Lidocaine. 
    • Sotalol. 
    • Beta-blockers. 
  • Drugs used to manage supraventricular tachycardias include: 
    • Diltiazem. 
    • Sotalol. 
    • Beta-blockers. 
  • Management of bradyarrhythmias are rarely needed in cats, but occasionally medical or surgical (pacemaker implantation) management is indicated, but this depends on the underlying cause.  
Not all drugs listed here are licensed for this species in all countries.

Myocardial stimulants

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Vasodilators

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Drugs for tachyarrhythmias

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Adrenoceptor stimulants

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Anticoagulants

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • King J N, Martin M, Chetboul V et al (2019) Evaluation of benazepril in cats with heart disease in a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. JVIM 33 (6), 2559-2571 PubMed.
  • Taylor S S, Sparkes A H, Briscoe K et al (2017) ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the management of hypertension in cats. JFMS 19 (3), 288-303 PubMed.  
  • Hogan D F, Fox, P R, Jacob K et al (2015) Secondary prevention of cardiogenic arterial thromboembolism in the cat: The double-blind, randomized, positive-controlled feline arterial thromboembolism; clopidogrel vs. aspirin trial (FAT CAT). J Vet Cardiol Supplement 1, S306-317 PubMed.
  • James R, Guillot E, Garelli-Paar C et al (2018) The SEISICAT study: a pilot study assessing efficacy and safety of spironolactone in cats with congestive heart failure secondary to cardiomyopathy. J Vet Cardiol 20 (1), 1-12 PubMed.
  • Reina-Doreste Y, Stern J A, Keene B W et al (2014) Case-control study of the effects of pimobendan on survival time in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 245 (5), 534-539 PubMed.
  • Schober K E, Zientek J, Fuentes V L, Bonagura J D (2013) Effect of treatment with atenolol on 5-year survival in cats with preclinical (asymptomatic) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Cardiol 15 (2), 93-104 PubMed.  
  • MacDonald K A, Kittleson M D, Kass P H et al (2008) The effect of spironolactone on diastolic function and left ventricular mass in Maine Coon cats with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. JVIM 22 (2), 335-341 PubMed.
  • Stokol T, Brooks M, Rush J E et al (2008) Hypercoagulability in cats with cardiomyopathy. JVIM 22 (3), 546-552 PubMed.
  • MacDonald K A, Kittleson M D, Larson R F et al (2006) The effect of ramipril on left ventricular mass, myocardial fibrosis, diastolic function and plasma neurohormones in Maine Coon cats with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without heart failure. JVIM 20 (5), 1093-1105 PubMed


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