Felis ISSN 2398-2950
Therapeutics: behavior modifiers
Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Hill J, Lauren Trepanier
Drugs to modify behavior
- Relatively new field of treatment - wide range of drugs, many with other indications.
- Must recognize limitations of medical treatment without behavioral modification programs.
- Antipsychotics → sedation, antimuscarinic effects, alpha-adrenergic blocking activity and extrapyramidal effects.
- Sedation can limit efficacy of behavioral modification programs (by limiting ability to learn).
- Acepromazine Acepromazine maleate.
- Anxiolytic; minimal side-effects; serotonin agonists.
- Buspirone hydrochloride*: for aggression, including fear related aggression but ineffective if exposed to intense stimuli; gradual onset of action.
- Anxiolytics, low risk of toxicity; but long-term use → dependency, withdrawal anxiety (withdraw gradually) and interference with memory and learning.
- Use mainly for short-term relief; very short half-life so needs frequent administration.
Risk of disinhibition → paradoxical increase in aggression.
- Clorazepate dipotassium*.
- Diazepam* Diazepam. Not first choice in cats, due to risk of rare but sometimes fatal idiosyncratic hepatocellular necrosis.
- Alprazolam Alprazolam.
- Tricyclic antidepressants:
- Prevent re-uptake ( → inactivation) of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine.
- Also have anxiolytic properties and useful in stereotypic conditions.
- Non-selective re-uptake inhibitors:
- Selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor:
Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs
- To reduce anxiety and decrease the somatic symptoms of anxiety - tremors and palpitations; may be useful in aggression.
- Propranolol* Propranolol. Non-selective beta blocker.
- Stereotypic behavior, eg excessive grooming.
- Concern about effect on other aspects of behavior.
- Naloxone hydrochloride* Naloxone: injectable only.
- Naltrexone hydrochloride*.
- For car travel and mild sedation to counter apprehension, ie using side-effects of the drugs.
- Chlorpheniramine maleate* Chlorphenamine.
- Diphenhydramine hydrochloride* Diphenhydramine.
- Anti-androgen therapy for aggression or where there is a sexual component to behavior - progestogens have anti-androgenic properties → non-specific CNS depression.
- Modern psychoactive drugs have largely superseded progestogens.
- Delmadinone acetate Delmadinone: chemical castration useful to predict effect of surgical castration on hypersexual behavior; but it also acts on limbic system, so surgical castration may not have same effect; may be disinhibition → increased aggression.
- Medroxyprogesterone acetate Medroxyprogesterone.
- Megestrol acetate Megestrol acetate. Not recommended in cats due to risk of diabetes mellitus.
- Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
- Johnson C (1999) Chemical restraint in the dog and cat. In Practice 21, 111-118.
- Karas A Z (1999) Sedation and chemical restraint in the dog and cat. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 14(1), 15-26.
Other sources of information
- Plumb D C (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 3rd edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa.