ISSN 2398-2950      

Sedation or sedative protocol

ffelis
Contributor(s):

John Dodam

Jo Murrell


Introduction

Indications for sedation

  • To reduce stress and anxiety.
  • Improve animal welfare.
  • Reduce risk of catecholamine-induced dysrhythmias Heart: dysrhythmia.
  • Reduce risk of handling difficult cats.
  • To enable a thorough clinical examination.
  • To perform diagnostic procedures.
  • To perform minor surgical procedures.
  • As premedication prior to general anesthesia General anesthesia: overview.

General rules

  • Allow adequate time for onset of action of the sedative after administration.
  • During this time it is very important to keep the cat in a quiet environment to get maximum sedative effect.
    Always monitor a cat that has been sedated.
  • IV administration generally produces the greatest sedative effect in the shortest time.
  • The time to peak sedation is longer after IM or SC administration, but the effect generally lasts longer.
  • Depressive effects on the CNS may be additive or synergistic with other agents.
  • Cats are particularly sensitive to hypothermia Hypothermia when sedated.
  • Weigh animal on scales - do not guess weight.
  • Combining sedatives often enhances potency while minimizing side effects.

Sedative agents

  • These include:
    • Acepromazine.
    • Benzodiazepines.
    • Opioids.
    • Alpha-2 agonists.
    • Ketamine.

Acepromazine

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Benzodiazepines

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Opioids

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Alpha-2 agonists

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Ketamine

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dyson D H (2008) Analgesia and chemical restraint for the emergent veterinary patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 38 (6), 1329-1352, vii PubMed.
  • Lemke K A (2004) Perioperative use of selective alpha-2 agonists and antagonists in small animals. Can Vet J 45 (6), 475-480 PubMed.
  • Vähä-Vahe T (1989) Clinical evaluation of medetomidine, a novel sedative and analgesic drug for dogs and cats. Acta Vet Scand 30 (3), 267-273 PubMed.

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