Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Neuroanatomical diagnosis

Contributor(s): Rodney Bagley, Laurent Garosi


  • By the time the neurological examination is completed, the examiner should be able to localize the lesion within the nervous system.

Clinical signs of disease in specific functional areas

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Differential diagnosis

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Ancillary testing

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Garosi L S (2009) Neurological examination of the cat. How to get started.​ J Feline Med Surg 11 (5), 340-348 PubMed.
  • Bagley R S, Pluhar G E & Alexander J E (1994) Lateral intervertebral disk extrusion causing lameness in a dog. JAVMA 205 (2), 181-183 PubMed.
  • Fischer A & Obermaier G (1994) Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials and neuropathologic correlates in 26 dogs with brain tumors. J Vet Intern Med (5), 363-369 PubMed.
  • Steiss J E, Cox N R & Hathcock J T (1994) Brain stem auditory-evoked response abnormalities in 14 dogs with confirmed central nervous system lesions. J Vet Intern Med (4), 293-298 PubMed.
  • Hopkins A L, Howard J F, Wheeler S J et al (1993) Stimulated single fiber electromyography in normal dogs. JSAP 34 (6), 271-276 PubMed.
  • Holliday T A (1992) Electrodiagnostic evaluation: Somatosensory evoked potentials and electromyography. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22 (4), 833-857 ScienceDirect.
  • Moore M P (1992) Approach to the patient with spinal disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22 (4), 751-780 PubMed.
  • Braund K G (1991) Nerve and muscle biopsy techniques. Prog Vet Neurol (1), 35-56 VetMedResource.
  • Shelton G D, Willard M D, Cardinet G H 3rd et al (1990) Acquired myasthenia gravis. Selective involvement of esophageal, pharyngeal, and facial muscles. J Vet Intern Med (6), 281-284 PubMed.
  • Spaulding K S & Sharp N J H (1990) Ultrasonographic imaging of the lateral cerebral ventricles in the dog. Vet Radiol 31 (2), 59-64 VetMedResource.
  • Thompson C E, Kornegay J N & Stevens J B (1990) Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebellomedullary and lumbar cistern of dogs with focal neurologic disease - 145 cases (1985-1987). JAVMA 196 (11), 1841-1844 PubMed.
  • Malik R, Ho S & Church D B (1989) The normal response to repetitive motor nerve stimulation in dogs. JSAP 30 (1), 20-26 VetMedResource.
  • Knecht C D, Redding R W & Wilson S (1985) Characteristics of F and H waves of ulnar and tibial nerves in cats - reference values. Am J Vet Res 46 (4), 977-979 PubMed.
  • Neer T M (1984) Horner's syndrome - anatomy, diagnosis and causes. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 6 (8), 740-746 VetMedResource.
  • Kornegay J N, Oliver J E Jr. & Gorgacz E J (1983) Clinicopathologic features of brain herniation in animals. JAVMA 182 (10), 1111-1116 PubMed.
  • Sims M H & Selcer R R (1981) Occurrence and evaluation of a reflex-evoked muscle potential (H reflex) in the normal dog. Am J Vet Res 42 (6), 975-983 PubMed.
  • Holliday T A (1980) Clinical signs of acute and chronic experimental lesions of the cerebellum. Vet Sci Communications (4), 259-278 VetMedResource.
  • Breitschwerdt E B, Breazile J E & Broadhurst J J (1979) Clinical and electroencephalographic findings associated with ten cases of suspected limbic epilepsy in the dog. JAAHA 15 (1), 37-50 VetMedResource.
  • Palmer A C (1970) Clinical and pathological aspects of cervical disc protrusion and primary tumors of the cervical spinal cord in the dog. JSAP 11 (1), 63-67 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lorenz M B & Kornegay J N (eds) (2011) Handbook of Veterinary Neurology, 4th edn, Elsevier/Saunders.
  • deLahunta A & Glass E (2008) Veterinary Neuroanatomy and Clinical Neurology. 3rd edn, Elsevier/Saunders, St. Louis.