Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Laser therapy: delivery

Synonym(s): Class IV laser therapy; Low level laser therapy (LLLT); Photobiomodulation

Contributor(s): Stephen Barabas, David R Mason

Introduction

  • Lasers are classified according to power settings and their potential deleterious effects on the retina of subjects (ANSI Classification) .
    • Class I lasers (micro Watts) are the weakest - internal electronics.
    • Class II lasers (<1 mW) - grocery scanners and pen pointers.
    • Class III a and b (<500 mW) - original medical lasers and light shows.
    • Class IV (>500 mW) - medical lasers, industrial, surgical and military.
  • Class IIIb and Class IV lasers require use of protective goggles.
  • Class IV lasers have shorter time protocols than Class IIIb allowing, faster treatment sessions with larger areas or deeper tissues stimulated over similar time frame.
  • Medical therapeutic lasers have been proven in double-blinded, placebo controlled studies to stimulate healing and pain management, from acute to chronic, non-healing diabetic wounds, and from sports injuries to deep musculoskeletal post-surgical rehabilitation .
  • Power settings and pulse frequency variations can be changed to treat different tissues from superficial wounds, to gingivae, muscle injuries, deep osteoarthritic joint pain, or neurological central nervous disorders.
  • The combined effects of wavelength, power (J/s or Watts) and pulse frequency (Hz) have a profound effect of a wide range of different tissues and conditions .

Laser treatment delivery techniques

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Dosage

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Tips to improve laser treatment results

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Calculating the energy density of a therapeutic laser

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Chung H et al (2012) The nuts and bolts of Low level laser light therapy. Ann Biomed Eng 40 (2), 516-533 PubMed.
  • Baltzer W et al (2011) Preoperative LLLT in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy: double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (awaiting publication)
  • Carvalho R L (2010) Effects of Low-Level Laser therapy on pain and scar formation after inguinal herniation surgery: A randomized controlled single-blind study. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 28 (3), 417-422 PubMed.
  • Chow R T et al (2009) Efficacy of LLLT in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active treatment controlled trials. The Lancet  374, 1897-1908 PubMed.
  • Minatel D G (2009) Phototherapy promotes healing of chronic diabetic leg ulcers that failed to respond to other therapies. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 41, 433-441 PubMed.
  • Oliveira F S et al (2009) Effects of LLLT (830nm) with different therapy regimes on the process of tissue repair in partial lesion calcaneous tendon. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 41, 271-276 PubMed.
  • Khadra M et al (2005) Effects of laser therapy on attachment, proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic like cells attached on titanium implant materials. Biomaterials 26, 3503-3509.
  • Manteifel V M & Karu T I (2005) Structure of mitochondria and activity of their respiratory chain in successive generation of yeast cells exposed to He-Ne laser light. Biology Bulletin 32 (6),  556-566.
  • Enwemeka C S et al (2004) The efficacy of Low power lasers in tissue repair and pain control: a meta-analysis study. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 22 (4), 323-329 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Cardona M (2013) Treatment of immune-mediated neutrophilic vasculitis in a Shar Pei with Low level laser therapy. SEVC 2013.
  • Stephens B, Baltzer W & Harrington P (2011) Internal dosimetry: combining simulation with phantom and ex vivo measurements. NAALT Congress 2011.
  • Health and Safety (2010) The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010 No. 1140.


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