ISSN 2398-2950      

Fluid therapy: for electrolyte abnormality

ffelis
Contributor(s):

John Dodam

Claire Waters


Sodium

Hyponatremia
  • Serum [Na2+]   Blood biochemistry: sodium  <136 mmol/l   Hyponatremia  .
  • Retention of water, eg in response to decreased blood volume or blood pressure.
  • Clinical signs   →   lethargy, weakness, vomiting, muscle cramping, seizures, wide QRS and ST segment elevation.
  • Severe hyponatremia (<110 mmol/l)   →   give 3% saline over 24 hours.
  • mmol Na+ required = 0.2 x body weight (kg) x (normal [Na+] - patients [Na+]).
  • Less severe (<120 mmol/l)   →   correct underlying cause and give 0.9% saline.

Hypernatremia

  • Serum [Na+] = >160 mmol/l   Hypernatremia  .
  • Free water loss, eg heat exhaustion.
  • Shift of water from ICS to ECS   →   cell dehydration, brain cells especially vulnerable.
  • Clinical signs   →   lethargy, confusion, muscle weakness, seizures and coma.
  • Give hypotonic fluid, eg 5% dextrose in water or 0.45% NaCl.
  • In cats with longstanding hypernatremia, correct slowly to prevent cerebral edema.

Potassium

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Calcium

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Haskins S C & Aldrich J (1994) Perioperative supportive care. In: Anaesthesia of the Cat. Eds L W Hall and P M Taylor. Balliere Tindall. pp 289-290. ISBN 0 7020 1665 9.

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