ISSN 2398-2950      

Cardiac arrest

ffelis

Introduction

  • The success rate of CPR  Cardiopulmonary arrest: pathophysiology is disappointingly low.
  • One retrospective investigation of intensive care patients at Colorado State University found that only 4.1% of the dogs and 9.6% of the cats which suffered cardiopulmonary arrest survived to discharge.
  • In contrast, animals which suffer respiratory arrest alone are much more likely to be successfully resuscitated Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
  • Anesthetized patients suffering CPA may have improved outcome as they are intubated Endotracheal intubation, breathing 100% oxygen, and have a peripheral catheter in place. The incidence of anesthesia-induced cardiopulmonary arrest has been reported to be as high as 35/10,000. Anesthesia-related CPA may be due to equipment failure, respiratory or cardiovascular problems, or human error.
  • Anesthetic overdose (absolute or relative), is also an important cause of CPA associated with anesthesia.
  • Four factors are generally believed to be related to poor outcome of CPA:
    • Long arrest time prior to initiation of CPR.
    • Prolonged ventricular fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation.
    • Inadequate coronary or cerebral perfusion during CPR.
    • Pre-existing disease.
  • Successful outcomes depend upon:
    • Prompt recognition of developing problems.
    • Rapid diagnosis of the underlying cause.
    • Taking appropriate measures to correct the problem quickly.
    • Monitoring of patient during anesthesia to avert accidents during and after anesthesia.
  • Main requirements during anesthesia:
    • Adequate delivery of oxygen to tissues (3-5 ml/kg/min).
    • Removal of waste products from tissues.
    • Failure to achieve the above can result in serious complications particularly tissue hypoxia and cell death.
    • Main requirement of the circulation is to deliver an adequate supply of well oxygenated blood to the tissues. Adequate perfusion of tissue is as important as oxygenation of the blood.
    • Mean blood pressure should be maintained above 70 mmHg.

Hypotension and hypovolemia

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Cardiac arrhythmias

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Other problems

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hall L W & Taylor P M (1994) Eds Anesthesia of the Cat. London: Bailliere Tindall. pp 249-266, 270-273, 274-309. ISBN 0 7020 1665 9
  • Bedford P G C (1991) Small Animal Anesthesia, The Increased Risk Patient. London: Bailliere Tindall. p 92- 132. ISBN 0 7020 1501 6.
  • Richards D L S (1989) Anesthetic accidents and emergencies. In: Manual of Anesthesia for Small Animal Practice. Ed: A D R Hilbery. Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 95-99. ISBN 0 905214 09 9.
  • Hall L W (1982) Relaxant drugs in small animal anesthesia. In: Proceedings of the Association of Veterinary Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Supplement to 10, pp 144-155.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code