Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Anesthesia: in gastrointestinal disease

Contributor(s): Jackie Brearley, Christopher G Byers, Nicole Guma


  • Patients with gastrointestinal disease require special considerations in the peri-operative period. A thorough understanding of the pathologic mechanisms of each disease process is important for appropriate management each condition.

Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV)

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Septic peritonitis from gastrointestinal disease

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Protein losing enteropathy (PLE)

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Elke G, Schädler D, Engel C et al (2008) Current practice in nutritional support and its association with mortality in septic patients-results from a national, prospective, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 36 (6), 1762-7 PubMed.
  • Martin L G, Luther T Y, Alperin D C et al (2008) Serum antibodies against human albumin in critically ill and healthy dogs. JAVMA 232 (7), 1004-1009 PubMed.
  • Mathews K A (2008) The therapeutic use of 25% human serum albumin in critically ill dogs and cats.​ Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 38 (3), 595-605 PubMed.
  • Buber T, Saragusty J, Ranen E et al (2007) Evaluation of lidocane treatment and risk factors for death associated with gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs: 112 cases (1997-2005). JAVMA 230 (9), 1334-1339 PubMed.
  • Francis A H, Martin L G, Haldorson G J et al (2007) Adverse reactions suggestive of type III hypersensitivity in six healthy dogs given human albumin. JAVMA 230 (6), 873-879 PubMed.
  • Beck J J, Staatz A J, Pelsue D H et al (2006) Risk factors associated with short-term outcome and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery because of gastric dilatation-volvulus: 166 cases (1992-2003). JAVMA 229 (12), 1934-1939 PubMed.
  • Bergener I A, Kovacevic A, Mauldin G N et al (2006) Cardiac troponins as indicators of acute myocardial damage in dogs. JVIM 20 (2), 277-283 PubMed.
  • Dubois M C, Orellana-Jimenez C, Melot C et al (2006) Albumin administration improves organ function in critically ill hypoalbuminemic patients:  A prospective, randomized, controlled, pilot study. Crit Care Med 34 (10), 2536-2540 PubMed.
  • Parton A T, Volk S W, Weisse C (2006) Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus. JAVMA 228 (12), 1895-1900 PubMed.
  • Sihler K C, Nathens A B (2006) Management of Severe Sepsis in the Surgical Patient. Surgical Clinics of North America 86 (6), 1457-1481 PubMed.
  • Mathews K A, Barry M (2005) The use of 25% human serum albumin:  outcome and efficacy in raising serum albumin and systemic blood pressure in critically ill dogs and cats. JVECC 15 (2), 110-118 VetMedResource.
  • Costello M E, Drobatz K J, Aronson L R et al (2004) Underlying cause, pathophysiologic abnormalities, and response to treatment in cats with septic peritonitis: 51 cases (1990-2001). JAVMA 225 (6), 897-902 PubMed.
  • Ordoñez C A, Puyana J C (2004) Management of peritonitis in the critically ill patient. Surgical Clinics of North America 86 (6), 1323-1349 PubMed.
  • Throop J L, Kerl M E, Cohn L A (2004) Albumin in health and disease: causes and treatment of hypoalbuminemia. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 26 (12), 940-948 VetMedResource.
  • Bonczynski J J, Ludwig L L, Barton L J et al (2003) Comparison of peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood pH, bicarbonate, glucose and lactate concentration as a diagnostic tool for septic peritonitis in dogs and cats (2003). Veterinary Surgery 32 (2), 161-166 PubMed.
  • Mazzaferro E M, Rudloff E, Kirby R (2002) The role of albumin replacement in the critically ill veterinary patient. JVECC 12 (2), 113-124 VetMedResource.
  • Lanz O, Ellison G W, Bellah J R et al (2001) Surgical Treatment of Septic Peritonitis Without Abdominal Drainage in 28 Dogs. JAAHA 37 (1), 87-92 PubMed.
  • de Papp E, Drobatz K J, Hughes D (1999) Plasma lactate as a predictor of gastric necrosis and survival among dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus 102 cases (1995-1998). JAVMA 215 (1), 49-52 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Silverstein D C, Hopper K (2009) Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. Saunders, St Louis, pp 579-588.
  • Hackendahl N H, Hill R C (2007) Enteral Feeding in Dogs with Septic Peritonitis.  Conference proceedings from ACVIM.
  • Kerl Marie E (2005) Acid-Base Abnormalities in the Septic Patient. Proceedings from the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium.
  • Carol G (2004) Local Analgesic and Anesthetic techniques. Western Veterinary Conference Proceedings.
  • SAFE Study Investigators (2004) A Comparison of Albumin and Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit. NEJM 350(22), 2247-2256.
  • Steiner J M (2003) Protein-Losing Enteropathies in Dogs. Proceedings from the World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress.
  • Delaforcade A (2003) Post Operative Care of the Septic Patient. Proceedings from the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium.
  • Bonangura J (2000) Current Veterinary Therapeutics XIII. pp139-139; 641-642.
  • Plumb D (1999) Veterinary Drug Handbook. 5th ed.