ISSN 2398-2950      

Ureter: ectopic

ffelis

Introduction

  • Very rarely reported in cats.
  • Cause: congenital; may be associated with other anomalies.
  • Signs: usually incontinent from birth, often with urine scalding around external genitalia.
  • Diagnosis: excretory urography, retrograde urethrography, vaginourethrography, computed tomography and ultrasound examinations.
  • Management: ureteronephrectomy or vesicoureteric reimplantation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Congenital development of ureteric termination other than proximal to trigone of bladder
  • Beyond trigone in urethra.
  • Directly into vagina.
  • Occasionally into uterus.

Pathophysiology

  • Usually terminate in urethra.
  • May terminate in vagina, rarely in uterus.
  • Approximately 50% bilateral.
  • Extramural: ureters totally bypass bladder and terminate in urethra, vagina or uterus.
  • Intramural: ureters enter bladder wall at normal site   →   continue through bladder musculature and submucosa   →   terminate in urethra or vagina.
  • May be associated with hypoplastic bladder   →   can contribute to urinary incontinence after surgery.

Timecourse

  • Not applicable - congenital lesion.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ghantous S N & Crawford J (2006) Double ureters with ureteral ectopia in a domestic shorthair cat. JAAHA 42 (6), 462-466 PubMed.
  • Steffey M A & Brockman D J (2004) Congenital ectopic ureters in a continent male dog and cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224 (10), 1607-1610 PubMed.
  • Holt P E & Gibbs C (1992) Congenital urinary incontinence in cats: a review of 19 cases. Vet Rec 130 (20), 437-442 PubMed.
  • Burbridge H M, Jones B R & Mora M T (1989) Ectopic ureter in a male cat. NZ Vet J 37 (3), 123-125 PubMed.
  • Rutgers C, Chew D J & Burt J K (1984) Bilateral ectopic ureters in female cats without urinary incontinence. JAVMA 184 (11), 1394-1395 PubMed.
  • Smith C W, Burke T J, Froehlich P et al (1983) Bilateral ureteral ectopia in a male cat with urinary incontinence. JAVMA 182 (2), 172-173 PubMed.

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