ISSN 2398-2950      

Thiamine deficiency

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Tad Coles

Laurent Garosi

Synonym(s): Vitamin B1 deficiency


Introduction

  • Cause: thiamine (vitamin B1) deficient diet, eg unsupplemented commercial foods; diet of raw fish, and/or some raw meats.
  • Signs: poor growth, anorexia, weight loss, coprophagy, neurologic signs, ventroflexion of head and neck.
  • Diagnosis: response to vitamin B1 or B complex supplement.
  • Treatment: thiamine supplement, supportive.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Cats are susceptible to thiamine deficiency because of their high-dietary requirement for thiamine.
  • Thiamine deficient diet:
    • Raw fish diet - due to presence of thiaminase (heat labile enzyme which can be destroyed by cooking) in a range of freshwater and saltwater fish.
    • Diet of raw meat preserved by sulfur dioxide (prohibited for human consumption).
    • Loss during processing (canned foods are more susceptible to thiamine loss because of the high temperature involved in the processing of these diets, especially when pH >5) or extended storage of commercial foods.
    • Excess dietary glutamate, eg based on vegetable protein.

Pathophysiology

  • Thiamine (as thiamine pyrophosphate) plays an important role in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, forming an essential component of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (including pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched chain oxoacid dehydrogenase) and transketolase.
  • Dietary deficiency   →   disruption of normal carbohydrate metabolism in range of tissues, eg gastrointestinal and nervous system.

Timecourse

  • Acute - days - weeks.
  • Chronic - months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Marks S L, Lipsitz D, Vernau K M et al (2011) Reversible encephalopathy secondary to thiamine deficiency in 3 cats ingesting commercial diets. J Vet Intern Med 25 (4), 949-953 PubMed.
  • Palus V, Penderis J, Jakovlevic S et al (2010) Thiamine deficiency in a cat: resolution of MRI abnormalities following thiamine supplementation. J Feline Med Surg 12 (10), 807-810 PubMed.
  • Penderis J, McConnell J F, Calvin J (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging features of thiamine deficiency in a cat. Vet Rec 160 (8), 270-272 PubMed.
  • Steel R J (1997) Thiamine deficiency in a cat associated with the preservation of 'pet meat' with sulphur dioxide. Aust Vet J 75 (10), 719-721 PubMed.
  • No authors listed (1997) Action on preservatives in fresh pet food. Aust Vet J 75 (5), 379 PubMed.
  • Davidson M G (1992) Thiamin deficiency in a colony of cats. Vet Rec 130 (5), 94-97 PubMed.
  • Leon A, Bain S A, Levick W R (1992) Hypokalaemic episodic polymyopathy in cats fed a vegetarian diet. Aust Vet J 69 (10), 249-254 PubMed.
  • Studdert V P, Labuc R H (1991) Thiamin deficiency in cats and dogs associated with feeding meat preserved with sulphur dioxide. Aust Vet J 68 (2), 54-57 PubMed.
  • Anderson W I, Morrow L A (1987) Thiamine deficiency encephalopathy with concurrent myocardial degeneration and polyradiculoneuropathy in a cat. Cornell Vet 77 (3), 251-257 PubMed.

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