Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Squamous cell carcinoma: nasal planum

Synonym(s): SCC nasal planum

Contributor(s): William Brewer Jr, Philip K Nicholls

Introduction

  • Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly affects pinna, eyelids and nasal planum in cats that lack pigment in these areas.
  • Nasal planum SCC reflects 13 per 10,000 hospital admissions. Cutaneous SCC generally is 9-25% of feline cutaneous neoplasia Skin: neoplasia.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Multiple accumulated genetic errors lead to disordered cell growth.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Time. Generally, it takes a long time and repetitive exposure for genetic errors to occur, to be fixed by replication of the cell, and for the resulting clonal outgrowth to accumulate further errors allowing greater dysregulation of cell growth.

Specific

  • Ultraviolet irradiation (290-300 nm), lack of pigment (white cats reportedly 13 times more at risk of SCC than non-white cats), lack of hair, sparse hair.

Pathophysiology

  • A malignant tumor of keratinocytes, with slow invasive local growth and metastasis only late in disease.
  • Resembles a crusting ulcer or minor wound, sometimes worsening in sunlight, in early stages of disease. Local invasion leads to a thickened and indurated nature.
  • Metastasis, however, is only late in disease, usually to regional lymph nodes and only very rarely to lungs. Disease results from local destruction of tissues and interference with function, and secondary bacterial infection.

Timecourse

  • Months to years. Neoplasia is a multistep process of sequential genetic alterations, selection and clonal evolution.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • de Vos J P, Burm A G & Focker B P (2004) Results from the treatment of advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in cats, using a combination of intralesional carboplatin and superficial radiotherapy: a pilot study. Vet Comp Oncol (2), 75-81 PubMed.
  • Lucroy M D (2002) Photodynamic therapy for companion animals with cancer. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 32 (3), 693-702 PubMed.
  • Lana S E, Ogilvie G K, Withrow S J et al (1997) Feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum and pinnae: 61 cases. JAAHA 33 (4), 329-332 PubMed.
  • Théon A P, VanVechten M K & Madewell B R (1996) Intratumoral administration of carboplatin for treatment of  squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal plane in cats. Amer J Vet Res 57 (2), 205-210 PubMed.
  • Théon A P, Madewell B R, Shearn V I et al (1995) Prognostic factors associated with radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of then nasal plane in cats. JAVMA 206 (7), 991-996 PubMed.
  • Peaston A, Leach M W & Higgins R J (1993) Photodynamic therapy for nasal and aural squamous cell carcinoma in cats. JAVMA 202 (8), 1261-1265 PubMed.
  • Shelley B A, Bartels K E, Ely R W et al (1992) Use of neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in a cat. JAAHA 201 (5), 756-758 PubMed.
  • Clarke R E (1991) Cryosurgical treatment of feline squamous cell carcinoma. Aust Vet Pract 21 (3), 148-153 VetMedResource.
  • Grier R L, Brewer W G Jr. & Theilen G H (1980) Hyperthermic treatment of superficial tumours in cats and dogs. JAVMA 177 (3), 227-233 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meuten D J (2002) Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Ed. Iowa State Press.


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