Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Slipped capital epiphyses

Synonym(s): Physeal dysplasia

Contributor(s): Linden Craig, Sorrel Langley-Hobbs

Introduction

  • Pelvic limb lameness in young adult male cats without a history of trauma can be due to slipped capital femoral epiphyses.
  • Siamese cats, Maine coon cats, and Domestic Short Haired breeds are predisposed and many cats are overweight.
  • Cats often have an insidious onset of lameness with no history of any traumatic incident. There is pain on manipulation of one or both hips. The condition is usually unilateral at first presentation but in most cats both hips are eventually affected. Radiographic changes are characteristic with slipped capital epiphyses and femoral neck resorption. Femoral head and neck excision is usually the recommended course of action with a good prognosis for return to normal function. Histopathological analysis of excised fragments shows disorganized persistent physeal cartilage with attempted fracture healing.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • This is a congenital anomaly which leads to persistent disorganized growth plates. Although most cats are castrated, it also occurs in intact males (and rarely, females). Although most cats are overweight, it also occurs in normal weight cats. One hypothesis is that a single defect leads to both obesity and physeal dysplasia.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Overweight.
  • Male.

Specific

  • Cats generally only have problems with the capital femoral epiphysis although a generalized physeal dysplasia is present.

Pathophysiology

  • Cartilaginous lesion (histopathological) represent pre-existing dysplasia of the physis.
  • One hypothesis is that a single congenital defect leads to both obesity and physeal dysplasia.
  • After fractures of the capital femoral epiphysis healing is often accompanied by femoral neck resorption.

Timecourse

  • On average present with a three week history of lameness.

Epidemiology

  • Male 85%.
  • Overweight 90%.
  • Siamese 25%.
  • Indoor cats.
  • 50-90% bilateral.

Comparative aspects

  • Reported in two overweight Shetland Sheepdogs.
  • Seen in overweight adolescent male humans.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Newton A L & Craig L E (2006) Multicentric physeal dysplasia in two cats. Vet Pathol 43 (3), 388-390 PubMed.
  • Burke J (2003) Physeal dysplasia with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in a cat. Can Vet J 44 (3), 238-239 PubMed.
  • McNicholas W T Jr., Wilkens B E, Blevins W E et al (2002) Spontaneous femoral capital physeal fractures in adult cats: 26 cases (1996-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 221 (12), 1731-1736 PubMed.
  • Craig L E (2001) Physeal dysplasia with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in 13 cats. Vet Pathol 38 (1), 92-97 PubMed.
  • Forrest L J, O'Brien R T, Manley P A (1999) Feline capital physeal dysplasia syndrome. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40, 672.
  • Queen J, Bennett D, Carmichael S et al (1998) Femoral neck metaphyseal osteopathy in the cat. Vet Rec 142 (7), 159-162 PubMed.
  • Dupuis J, Breton L, Drolet R (1997) Bilateral epiphysiolysis of the femoral heads in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210 (8), 1162-1165 PubMed.


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