ISSN 2398-2950      

Skin: pemphigus vulgaris

ffelis

Introduction

  • Most severe of the pemphigus group of conditions; showing suprabasilar vesicles and clefts.
  • Extremely rare auto-immune disease of skin, oral cavity and mucocutaneous areas; but diagnosed second most frequently of the pemphigus group. (Pemphigus foliaceus Skin: pemphigus foliaceus is the most common.)
  • Cause: auto-antibody against keratinocyte intercellular adhesion molecules.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology.
  • Treatment: immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Prognosis: poor.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Pemphigus  Pemphigus  to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown initiation of auto-antibody.

Predisposing factors

General

  • In man and dogs predisposing factors may be important:
    • Drug-induced, ultraviolet light and stress.
    • Prior chronic skin disease.
    • Possible virus with insect vector.
  • The importance of these has not been established in the cat.

Pathophysiology

  • Damage to keratinocyte adhesion   →   blister formation   →   ulcerated with minor trauma.
  • Binding of pemphigus antibody to adhesion molecule on cell surface of keratinocyte   →   incorporated into keratinocyte lysosome.
  • Activation and release of proteolytic enzyme   →   extracellular space   →   converts plasminogen to plasmin   →   hydrolysis of adhesion molecules   →   acantholysis   →   blister formation within epidermis.
  • May be complement activation and chemoattraction of inflammatory cells (pustule formation).

Timecourse

  • Rapid onset of symptoms leads to death if no treatment.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Scott D W, Walton D K, Slater M R et al (1987) Immune-mediated dermatoses in domestic animals: ten years after. I. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet (4), 424-435 VetMedResource.
  • Manning T O, Scott D W, Smith C A et al (1982) Pemphigus diseases in the feline; seven cases reports and discussion. JAAHA 18 (3), 433-443 VetMedResource.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!