Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism

Contributor(s): Penney Barber

Introduction

  • Bone disorder caused by excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) usually the result of poor nutrition.
  • Cause: diet with excess phosphorus or low calcium.
  • Signs: bone pain, stiffness, neurological signs, fever +/- constipation +/- fractures +/-, aduults may have tooth loss.
  • Diagnosis: history, laboratory data, radiography.
  • Treatment: strict rest, dietary modification.
  • Prognosis: good if treated early.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Feeding diet with inappropriate calcium:phosphorus ratio (should be 1:1).
  • Usually animals fed on pure meat diet.

Pathophysiology

  • Excess PTH secretion due to inadequate dietary calcium   →   demineralization of bones   →   clinical signs.
  • Hypocalcemia (ionized calcium Blood biochemistry: ionized calcium) as a result of inadequate intake or excess phosphate   →   increased PTH secretion.
  • Inability to compensate by increased dietary uptake of calcium   →   skeletal demineralization   →   osteopenia.
  • Weakness of bones may   →   pathological fractures   →   vertebral collapse and neurological signs in some cases.

Timecourse

  • 2-4 weeks in young, may take years to develop in the adult.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Tomsa K, Glaus T, Hauser B et al (1999) Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in six cats. JSAP 40 (11), 533-9 PubMed.
  • Rowland G N, Capen C C, Nagode L A (1968) Experimental hyparathyroidism in young cats. Pathol Vet (6), 504-19 SAGE Journals.
  • Krook L, Barrett R B, Usui K et al (1963) Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the cat. Cornell Vet 53, 224-240 PubMed.


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