Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Nasopharyngeal stenosis

Contributor(s): David Godfrey, Roberto Novo

Introduction

  • Unusual form of upper airway obstruction secondary to scar tissue formation across the nasopharynx.  This condition has been described in cats following upper respiratory tract infections.
  • Signs:  snuffling, gagging, dyspnea, and respiratory stridor.
  • Diagnosis:  auscultation, radiography, catheterization of ventral nasal meatus, and retroflexed rhinoscopy Rhinoscopy/nasopharynoscopy (caudal rhinoscopy) /pharyngoscopy.
  • Histopathology:  chronic inflammatory rhinitis Rhinitis and/or diffuse fibrosis.
  • Treatment:  stents, bougeniage, resection, or mucosal advancement flap.
  • Prognosis:  recurrent chronic rhinitis and restenosis is common.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Often occurs as a sequel to the inflammation or ulcerations associated with an episode of upper respiratory tract disease (bacterial or viral Viral-induced upper respiratory tract disease).
  • In humans, is associated with infection, caustic burns, and trauma (foreign body or surgery).
  • Scar tissue forms across the openings of the caudal nares into the nasopharynx, decreasing their diameter from 5 mm to a pinpoint size.  Adhesions of the soft palate to the dorsal wall of the nasopharynx may occur caudally.

Specific

  • Upper respiratory tract infection, trauma, nasopharyngeal surgery.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Glaus T M, Gerber B, Tomsa K et al (2005) Reproducible and long-lasting success of balloon dilation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in cats. Vet Rec 157 (9), 257-259 PubMed.
  • Henderson S M, Bradley K, Day M J et al (2004) Investigation of nasal disease in the cat a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Feline Med Surg (4), 245-257 PubMed.
  • Boswood A, Lamb C R, Brockman D J et al (2003) Balloon dilation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44 (1), 53-55 PubMed.
  • Glaus T M, Tomsa K, Reusch C E (2002) Balloon dilation of the treatment of chronic recurrent nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. J Small Animal Pract 43 (2), 88-90 PubMed.
  • Griffon D J, Tasker S (2000) Use of a mucosal advancement flap for the treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat. J Small Animal Practice 41 (2), 71-73 PubMed.
  • Novo R E, Kramek B (1999) Surgical repair of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a cat using a stent. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35 (3), 251-256 PubMed.
  • Mitten R W (1988) Nasopharyngeal stenosis in four cats. J Small Anim Pract 29 (6), 341-345 VetMedResource.


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