Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Nasal cavity: neoplasia

Contributor(s): William Brewer Jr, Susan North

Introduction

  • Tumors arise for nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • Less common than in the dog.
  • 90% of tumors are malignant.
  • Cause: predominantly lymphomas, carcinomas also seen (adenocarcinoma Adenoma / adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma).
  • Fibrosarcoma Fibrosarcoma uncommon, also chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma.
  • Benign polyps rare.
  • Signs: related to primary tumor, ie upper respiratory, slow to metastasize.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, histopathology.
  • Treatment: chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery.
  • Prognosis: poor if malignant; excellent for polyps.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inhalation of carcinogens implicated in dogs - not known for cats.
  • Previous URT infection/inflammation may cause polyps.

Pathophysiology

  • Primary mass in nasal cavity causes local nasal signs (nasal discharge, epistaxis, sneezing) and invades surrounding soft tissues (facial deformity, epiphora).
  • Slow to spread to local lymph nodes and lungs.
  • Primary mass destroys turbinates and causes local nasal signs (nasal discharge, epistaxis, sneezing), erodes nasal septum to affect both nasal chambers, erodes frontal and palatine bones to invade surrounding soft tissues (facial deformity, epiphora).
  • Slow to spread to local lymph nodes and lungs.
  • May be association between nasal lymphoma and subsequent renal lymphoma Lymphoma.

Timecourse

  • Chronic progression - usually take a year or more to metastasize.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Mellanby R J, Herrtage M E & Dobson J M (2002) Long-term outcome of eight cats with non-lymphoproliferative nasal tumours treated by megavoltage radiotherapy. J Feline Med Surg (2), 77-81 PubMed.
  • Galloway P E, Kyles A & Henderson J P (1997) Nasal polyps in a cat. JSAP 38 (2), 78-80 PubMed.
  • Théon A P, Peaston A E, Madewell B R et al (1994) Irradiation of nonlymphoproliferative neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in 16 cats. JAVMA 204 (1), 78-83 PubMed.
  • Elmslie R E, Ogilvie G K, Gillette E L et al (1991) Radiotherapy with and without chemotherapy for localized lymphoma in 10 cats. Vet Radiol 32 (6), 277-280 VetMedResource.
  • Evans S M & Hendrick M (1989) Radiotherapy of feline nasal tumors. Vet Radiol 30 (3), 128-132 VetMedResource.
  • Straw R C, Withrow S J, Gillete E L et al (1986) Use of radiotherapy for the treatment of intranasal tumors in cats - six cases (1980-1985). JAVMA 189 (8), 927-929 PubMed.
  • Legendre A M, Krahwinkel D J Jr. & Spaulding K A (1981) Feline nasal and paranasal sinus tumors. JAAHA 17 (6), 1038-1039 VetMedResource.


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