Felis ISSN 2398-2950
Contributor(s): Laurent Garosi, David Godfrey, G Diane Shelton
- Myopathies are quite common in cats.
- Signs: Muscle weakness alone or as part of a systemic illness.
- Cause: By far the most common cause is hypokalemic myopathy Hypokalemia.
- Ischemia associated with a thromboembolus Thromboembolism: aorta is also common
- Other unusual causes are inherited myopathies (muscular dystrophies Muscular dystrophy, myositis ossificans Myositis ossificans, myotonia congenital Myotonia congenita, glycogen storage diseases Storage disease), idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, degenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, tumors, nutritional deficiency, paraneoplastic disease Feline cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes, feline immunodeficiency virus disease (FIV) Feline immunodeficiency virus disease, associated myopathy and protozoal myositis ( toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis), endocrine myopathies (glucocorticoid myopathy, hypoadrenocorticism-associated myopathy, hyperthyroid myopathy).
- Diagnosis: biochemistry, muscle biopsy and histopathology.
- Treatment: treat underlying cause.
- Prognosis: good if underlying cause identified and treated.
- The different diseases all have a different pathogenesis.
- There are probable genetic causes of some diseases, eg X-linked muscular dystrophy, myotonia congenita, glycogen storage disease Storage disease, Nemaline myopathy, feline muscular dystrophy with merosin (laminin a2) deficiency, hereditary myopathy of Devon Rex Devon Rex myopathy, hypokalemia of Burmese kittens Hypokalemic myopathy (Burmese) Hypokalemia , fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
- There are underlying infectious causes in cats with myopathy associated with feline immunodeficiency virus Feline immunodeficiency virus disease, Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium septicum, and toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis.
- Polymyositis may be associated with paraneoplasia, infections or idiopathic autoimmune disease Idiopathic polymyositis.
- Immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy is usually idiopathic. The paraneoplastic disease seen occasionally with thymoma Thymoma is probably immune-mediated.
- The most common cause of polymyopathy is hypokalemia which causes a physiological rather than physical disease. Hypokalemia Hypokalemia may be caused by chronic renal failure Kidney: chronic kidney disease, hyperaldosteronism, thyrotoxicosis, renal tubular acidosis, excessive potassium loss, or diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus. It is associated with a presumably genetic disease in Burmese kittens.
- Other electrolyte disturbances especially hyponatremia Hyponatremia (hyperadenocorticism-associated myopathy) and hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia: overview may cause some of their clinical signs by a physiological myopathy.
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