Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Mouth: squamous cell carcinoma

Synonym(s): oral SCC

Contributor(s): Phil Nicholls, Marion O'Leary

Introduction

  • Oral neoplasia forms 10% of all feline neoplasia.
  • 60-70% of feline oral neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Sublingual SCC is most common site.
  • Other malignant oral neoplasms include fibrosarcoma (second most common) and lymphosarcoma (less common) plus a few rare types.
  • Tonsillar SCC is more malignant (see separate entry).
  • Signs: hypersalivation, dysphagia and facial asymmetry are common signs for oral neoplasia in the cat.
  • Diagnosis: biopsy required to confirm tumor type, radiography helps to establish extent of disease.
  • Treatment: surgical excision +/- radiotherapy.
  • Prognosis: mandibulectomy may allow prolonged survival (1 year +), but sublingual SCC hard to treat.
    Print off the owner factsheet Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Malignant transformation of oral stratified squamous epithelium covering tongue or buccal mucosa   →   mixed proliferative and ulcerative lesion    →   local invasion loosens teeth and destroys bone    →   spread to regional lymph nodes   →   distant metastasis.
  • Irregular proliferative or ulcerative epithelial lesions at any site in upper or lower dental arcade    →   destruction of periodontal tissues and loosening teeth    →   bone invasion (70-77% of cases)    →   regional lymph node metastases (5-10% of cases)    →   distant metastases (3-36% of cases).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bregazzi V S, LaRue S E, Powers B E et al (2001) Response of feline oral squamous cell carcinoma to palliative radiation therapy. Vet Rad Ultra 42 (1), 77-79 PubMed.
  • Schmidt B R, Glickman N W, DeNichola D B et al (2001) Evaluation of prioxicam for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in dogs. JAVMA 218 (11), 1783-1786 PubMed.
  • Frew D G & Dobson J M (1992) Radiological assessment of 50 cases of incisive or maxillary neoplasia in the dog. JSAP 33 (1), 11-18 VetMedResource.
  • White R A S (1991) Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy in the dog: long term survival in 100 cases. JSAP 32 (2), 69-74 VetMedResource.
  • Dobson J M & White R A S (1990) Oral tumours in dogs and cats. In Practice 12 (4), 135-146 PubMed.
  • White R A S, Gorman N T, Watkins S B et al (1985) The surgical management of bone-involved oral tumours in the dog. JSAP 26 (12), 693-708 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (1996) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-5592-0 (Up-to-date reference on all aspects of small animal clinical oncology).
  • White R A S (1990) In:The Manual of Small Animal Dentistry, pp 101-112 .Cheltenham: BSAVA. (Affordable source, very readable.)


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