Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Mouth: neoplasia

Contributor(s): Susan North

Introduction

  • Fourth most common site for tumor formation in cat but less common than in the dog.
  • Fewer tumor types seen commonly than in the dog.
  • Most are malignant. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 75% of all tumors.
  • Signs: mass can occur in buccal or lingual mucosae, gingiva, tongue, tonsil, palate or pharynx.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgery, radiotherapy.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Primary mass can cause significant morbidity due to local invasion of adjacent tissues, secondary infection, bone destruction and tooth loss.
  • Malignant primary tumor in mouth usually spreads via local lymph nodes to lungs, but often euthanasia required before this occurs.
  • 3% of all feline tumors.

Benign

  • Epulis:
    • Acanthomatous epulis/basal cell carcinoma - rare Acanthomatous epulis 01  Acanthomatous epulis 02 .
    • Fibrous/ossifying - rare.
  • Odontogenic tumor/ameloblastoma - rare (predilection for maxilla).

Malignant

  • Malignant primary tumor in mouth invades local tissues, invades bone, ulcerates, becomes secondarily infected and is painful, causes tooth loss, anorexia, hypersalivation etc.
  • Usually spreads via local lymph nodes to lungs.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma - most common Mouth: squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Fibrosarcoma - second most common.
  • Lymphoma - uncommon.
  • Melanoma - rare.
  • Osteosarcoma - rare.

Timecourse

  • Rate of growth of primary tumor varies with tumor type and site.
  • Speed of metastasis varies with tumor type and site.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Moore A (2009) Treatment choices for oral cancer in cats. What is possible? What is reasonable? J Feline Med Surg 11 (1), 23-31 PubMed.
  • Kapatkin A S, Marretta S M, Patnaik A K et al (1991) Mandibular swellings in cats: prospective study of 24 cats. JAAHA 27 (6),  575-580 VetMedResource.
  • Birchard S & Carothers M (1990) Aggressive surgery in the management of oral neoplasia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 20 (4), 1117-1140 PubMed.
  • Cotter S M (1981) Oral pharyngeal neoplasms in the cat. JAAHA 17 (6), 917-920 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Dobson J M & White R A S (1990) Oral tumors in dogs and cats. In:Practice 12, pp 135-146.
  • Head K W (1990) Tumors of the oropharynx. In: Tumors in Domestic Animals. Ed J E Moulton. 3rd edition. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp 347-370.
  • Withrow S J (1996) Cancer of the oral cavity. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Eds S J Withrow and E G MacEwen. 2nd edition. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co. pp227-240.


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