ISSN 2398-2950      

Mammary hyperplasia

ffelis

Synonym(s): Juvenile mammary hypertrophy, Fibroglandular hypertrophy, Mammary fibroadenomatosis, Fibroepithelial hyperplasia, Fibroadenomatous hyperplasia (FAH


Introduction

  • Cause: benign but potentially clinically significant proliferation of fibroglandular mammary tissue due to increased progesterone or estrogens.
  • Signs: mammary swelling, pain, can progress to ulceration, excoriation and necrosis.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs and history.
  • Treatment: symptomatic, withdraw exogenous therapy if present, administration of antiprogestins or antiprolactins as indicated and as available.
  • Prognosis: guarded to good - often resolve spontaneously. Ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy will prevent future episodes if endogenous progesterone/estrogen causal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Reaction to exogenous prostagens
  • Abnormal response to endogenous progesterone

Predisposing factors

General

  • Diestrus.
  • Exogenous progestogen administration.

Specific

  • Hormonal dependent non-neoplastic proliferation of ductal epithelium and stroma.
  • Increased response to endogenous progesterone or reaction to exogenous progestagens.
  • May   →   direct action on progesterone receptors in mammary gland.
  • Possible indirect action via alteration of action of other hormones, eg estrogen, glucocorticoids or growth hormone.

Pathophysiology

  • Benign proliferation of fibroglandular (typically young postestrus queens) or ductal tissue (progestogen therapy).

Timecourse

  • Days to weeks.
  • Common onset:
    • 2-4 weeks after estrus.
    • First month of pregnancy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jurka P, Max A (2009) Treatment of fibroadenomatosis in 14 cats with aglepristone - changes in blood parameters and follow-up. Vet Rec 165 (22), 657-660 PubMed.
  • Görlinger S, Koostra H S, van den Broek A et al (2002) Treatment of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in cats with aglé​pristone. JVIM 16 (6), 710-713 PubMed.
  • Wehrend A, Hospes R & Gruber A D (2001) Treatment of feline mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia with a progesterone-antagonist. Vet Rec 148 (11), 346-347 PubMed.
  • Center S A, Randolph J F (1985) Lactation and spontaneous remission of feline mammary hyperplasia following pregnancy. JAAHA 21 (1), 56-8 VetMedResource.
  • Dorn D R, Legendre A M, McGavin M D (1983) Mammary hyperplasia in a male cat receiving progesterone. JAVMA 182 (6), 621-2 PubMed.
  • Hayden D W, Johnston S D, Kiang D T et al (1981) Feline mammary hypertrophy/fibroadenoma complex​ - clinical and hormonal aspects. Am J Vet Res 42 (10), 1699-1703 PubMed.
  • Seiler R J, Kelly W R, Menrath V H et al (1979) Total fibroadenomatous change of the mammary glands of two spayed cats. Feline Pract (2), 25 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Hayden D W & Johnston K H (1986) Feline mammary hypertrophy - fibroadenomatous complex. pp 477-480. In: Kirk (Ed) Current Vet Therapy IX. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.

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