Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Lung: pulmonary neoplasia

Contributor(s): Philip K Nicholls, Gerry A Polton, Irene Rochlitz

Introduction

  • Neoplasia arising directly from bronchopulmonary tissue, or as a result of metastasis.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Most lung tumors in cats are found after a prolonged incubation period. Cats usually do not demonstrate altered respiratory patterns until disease is very advanced. For this reason more cats with pulmonary tumors present with paraneoplastic syndromes than present with signs associated with the primary tumor Feline cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Primary neoplasia   →   compression of airways by tumor mass   →   expiratory dyspnea/cough.
  • Secondary neoplasia (usually)   →   loss of functional lung tissue or compression of larger airways   →   dyspnea and tachypnea.
  • Vessel erosion and microvascular leakage   →   blood often found on bronchoscopy (rarely)   →   hemoptysis.
  • Thoracic neoplastic (and non-neoplastic) masses (may)   →   hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy (Marie's disease Hypertrophic osteopathy)   →   bilateral, symmetrical, painful soft tissue swellings overlying periosteum of distal long bones   →   lameness.
  • Inflammatory responses + airway obstruction   →   bacterial proliferation   →   secondary bronchopneumonia Pneumonia.
  • Airway wall erosion or rupture (rarely)   →   pneumothorax Pneumothorax.

Paraneoplastic signs

  • Primary lung tumor often presents with metastasis to digits and skeletal muscles Digit: neoplasia   →   lameness.
  • Advanced pulmonary carcinoma induces hypercalcemia of malignancy Hypercalcemia: overview  →    anorexia, listlessness, thirst, polyuria and lower urinary tract signs secondary to oxalate urolithiasis Urolithiasis.
  • Advanced pulmonary carcinoma increases the risk of coagulopathy which may present as spontaneous hemorrhage or thromboembolic disorders:

Timecourse

  • Usually short once clinical signs present.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Goldfinch N, Argyle D J (2012) Feline lung-digit syndrome: unusual metastatic patterns of primary lung tumours in cats. J Feline Med Surg 14 (3), 202-208 PubMed.
  • Hahn K A, McEntee M F (1999) Primary lung tumors in cats - 86 cases (1979-1994). JAVMA 211 (10), 1257-1260 PubMed.
  • Barr I F, Gruffydd-Jones T J, Brown P J et al (1987) Primary lung tumors in the cat. JSAP 28 (12), 1115-1125 VetMedResource.


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